Journal of
Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health

  • Abbreviation: J. Vet. Med. Anim. Health
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2529
  • DOI: 10.5897/JVMAH
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 387

Full Length Research Paper

Brine shrimp toxicity and in vitro antimicrobial activity of Piliostigma thonningii (Schum.) Milne-Redh. [Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae] from Kenya and Malawi against some pathogens of human and veterinary importance

Joseph Mwanzia Nguta
  • Joseph Mwanzia Nguta
  • Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Agriculture andVeterinary Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 29053-00625 Nairobi, Kenya.
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James Mucunu Mbaria
  • James Mucunu Mbaria
  • Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Agriculture andVeterinary Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 29053-00625 Nairobi, Kenya.
  • Google Scholar
Winchester David Mvula
  • Winchester David Mvula
  • Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Agriculture andVeterinary Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 29053-00625 Nairobi, Kenya.
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  •  Accepted: 05 August 2013
  •  Published: 30 September 2013

Abstract

Many microorganisms are responsible for causing serious diseases of bacterial origin. Development of drug resistance in animal and human pathogens against commonly used antibiotics has necessitated a search for new antimicrobial substances from other sources including plants. The present study reports on the antimicrobial and brine shrimp lethality of Piliostigma thonningii leaves collected from two geographical regions, Kenya and Malawi. Both aqueous as well as organic extracts from leaves of P. thonningii were screened for antibacterial activity against bacteria of human and veterinary importance using agar well diffusion and evaluated for acute toxicity using brine shrimp bioassay. Except for chloroform extract of P. thonningii from Malawi, all of the plant extracts demonstrated remarkable antibacterial activity against the five test bacteria at concentrations tested (250 µg/ml) in agar well diffusion method. In brine shrimp bioassay, all the crude extracts from Kenya and Malawi exhibited varying degrees of toxicity against Artemia salina larvae. Nevertheless, further evaluation of thein vivo toxicity and in vivo antibacterial activity of the crude plant extracts should be carried out.

 

Key words: Piliostigma Thonningii, brine shrimp bioassay, antibacterial activity, crude plant extract, Kenya, Malawi.