A cross-sectional study on seroprevalence of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) antibodies in backyard and small-scale chicken producer farms in Agarfa and Sinana districts was conducted using hemagglutination inhibition test (HAI) from February, 2015 to May, 2015. A total of 384 chicken sera were randomly collected from ten kebeles of the selected districts. Hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) test was used to analyze 384 chicken sera for NDV antibodies and the overall seroprevalence rate of 27.86% was found. A higher seroprevalence of 33.04% was observed in Sinana district when compared to Agarfa (20.13%) district. The prevalence in each kebele ranges from 15.63% to 40%; the highest prevalence of 40% was found at Horaboka, but insignificantly associated with Newcastle disease (ND) seropositivity. A Chi-square computed statistical analysis indicated that origin (χ2=7.6526; p<0.006), sex (χ2=6.9134; p<0.009) and type of chicken (layers/broilers) (χ2=11.2443; p<0.001) were the major risk factors for ND infection in the studied areas. The difference, however, was not statistically significant (p>0.05) for age (adult/young), breed (exotic/cross/indigenous (local)), contact with other flocks, access to feed and water, and seasonal occurrence. Multivariable logistic regression statistical analysis revealed that origin and type (layers/broilers) were significantly associated with ND seropositivity (p<0.05). Consequently, origin was statistically identified to be the major risk factor for ND to occur in relation to other factors (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) =2.12). The study showed that majority of the chicken population in the studied area was susceptible to the pathogenic NDV infection. Therefore, more proactive measures should be taken to protect the chicken population from ND infection to reduce its economic impact to the poultry industry.
Key words: Agarfa, chicken, Newcastle disease, risk factors, seroprevalence, Sinana.
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