Journal of
Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health

  • Abbreviation: J. Vet. Med. Anim. Health
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2529
  • DOI: 10.5897/JVMAH
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 388

Full Length Research Paper

Taenia saginata taeniosis/cysticercosis risk factors: Applying Pareto principles to model more efficient control and prevention strategies in Botswana

Goodhead Okechukwu Uchendu
  • Goodhead Okechukwu Uchendu
  • Department of Animal Science, Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Private Bag: 0027 Sebele Botswana.
  • Google Scholar
Njoku Ola Ama
  • Njoku Ola Ama
  • Tocchae Holdings Pty, 3 Tropic Bird Lane, Wilgeheuwel, Roodepoort, Johannesburg, South Africa.
  • Google Scholar
Andrew Olatunbosun Aganga
  • Andrew Olatunbosun Aganga
  • Department of Veterinary Science, Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Private Bag: 0027 Sebele Botswana.
  • Google Scholar
Marumo S. Davis
  • Marumo S. Davis
  • Department of Agricultural Economics, Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Private Bag: 0027 Sebele Botswana.
  • Google Scholar


  •  Received: 02 November 2020
  •  Accepted: 16 February 2021
  •  Published: 31 March 2021

Abstract

Most available data on Taenia saginata taeniosis/cysticercosis risk factors in Botswana neither associate risk factors with Batswana’s lifestyle nor rank risk factors’ contribution to observed prevalence. This disconnect undermines usability of data for bovine cysticercosis control. This study identified bovine cysticercosis risk factors and quantitatively ranked risk factors’ contributions to observed prevalence. Visual observation and interviews using Likert scale-formatted questionnaire was employed in collecting primary data from beef industry’s stakeholders (149). Fourteen (14) out of eighteen (18) risk factors jointly predicted bovine cysticercosis prevalence (p <0.05), but the only factor of ‘beef sold at non-licensed premises’ predicted prevalence individually. Top 20% important risk factors were absence or distant pit latrines in farms (p <0.05; MD=1.288; CI: 1.15-1.43), proximity to uncontrolled human defecate (p <0.05; MD=1.184; CI=1.03-1.34), access to contaminated pasture (p <0.05; mean=4.13; MD=1.131), and failure to deworm herd boys (p <0.05; mean=4.10; MD= 1.097). Current prevention strategies in Botswana emphasizes proper disposal of human defecate. However, this study showed that minimizing butchers buying and slaughtering animals without proper ante-mortem and post-mortem examination would yield more efficient result. By adopting Pareto principle, this study modeled that controlling these top 20% important risk factors instead of targeting a repertoire of risk factors would result in 80% prevalence drop. Respondents showed greater consensus on risk factors with high odds to cause bovine cysticercosis. This consensus provides platform for driving attitudinal change, since risk factors were lifestyle-related. Associating people’s lifestyle with risk factors of this zoonosis while targeting top 20% risk factors yields more efficient control outcomes.

Key words: Batswana’s lifestyles, Taenia saginata/cysticercosis, ranking risk factors, prevalence, Pareto principle, efficient control and prevention.