Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an economically important disease of cattle and can produce a chronic debility in infected cattle. Lesions in the mouth, pharynx and respiratory tract commonly occur, resulting in a rapid deterioration in condition and sometimes severe emaciation, which can persist for months. Severe and permanent damage to hides results from the skin lesions. Serious economic losses can follow in the outbreaks with a high morbidity. Morbidity of LSD varies greatly that ranges from 3 to 85% in different epizootic situations and even 100% in rare cases. The mortality rate of this disease mostly considered not very high from 1 to 2% and sometime up to 10%. However, mortality may reach up to 40% in severe outbreak cases. There is no specific antiviral treatment available for LSD-infected cattle. Two vaccines, however, Neethling and Kenya sheep and goat pox virus, have been used widely in Africa with success. Lumpy skin disease is endemic disease in Ethiopia with an increase in its range from its existence in 1983 from Southwest of Lake Tana. In current situation, the disease wide spread throughout the country regardless of the altitude as well as husbandry systems of the location and farming system, respectively. All cattle breeds, both sexes and all ages groups are susceptible. The disease is distributed almost in all regions and is regarded as one of the most economically important livestock diseases in the country.
Keywords: Cattle, Epidemiology, Ethiopia, LSD, Risk factors