Transformations in agriculture parallel to the advancements in civilizations have been a novel practice to enhance the productive creation of Mother Nature to nurture the society. Scientific advances of last century featuring identification of DNA, the development of molecular biology and its exploitation in life sciences have taken a lead. Progressions such as crop improvements through genetic modifications/genetic engineering/recombinant DNA technology are major milestones in this breakthrough technological revolution, offering promising hands for greater challenges in conventional breeding approaches of the 21st century. Introduction of recombinant DNA technology and its resultant as “Genetically modified (GM)”, “Genetically engineered” or “Transgenic” crops accepted the challenge and delivered commercially viable herbicides, insects and viruses resistant entities, etc. On the global transgenic map, India is seen fortunate to be amongst top Bt-cotton producer, leading China by 11.6 million hectares in the year 2013 to 2014. India leads on Bt-cotton, many progressing in the pipeline, but with many controversial issues viz. Human and environmental safety, ethics, food security, commodity transfer and meddling with Mother Nature had always been raised as special concern before accepting this technology. This review projects era of transgenic, fostering the agricultural sector, breaking the challenges behind the acceptance of engineered crops and furthers its impact on growing agricultural economics.
Key words: Bt-cotton, biosafety, genetically modified (GM) crops, rDNA technology, transgenic, India.
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