The methanolic crude extract of the aerial parts of Elaeagnus umbellata and its various solvent fractions was screened for the secondary metabolites and biological activity. Phytochemical analysis of the aerial parts showed the presence of bioactive secondary metabolites; alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins while flavonoids, anthraquinones, tannins, phlobatanins and glycosides were absent. The ethyl acetate fraction and methanolic extract of E. umbellata showed moderate antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidisand Bacillus subtilis. The isolated fractions; n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanolic extract exhibited significantly 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging activity while chloroform showed low activity. The EC50 of the fractions and extract ranged between 5.5 and 250.6 μg/ml and that of querceitin was 4.12 μg/ml. This study reveals that the consumption of the plant would exert several beneficial effects by virtue of their antioxidant and antibacterial activities.
Key words: Phytochemical screening, Elaeagnus umbellate, antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity, Infrared spectroscopic analysis.
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