The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-diabetic effects and biochemical parameters of methanol root extract of Acalypha wilkesiana Mull Arg. (MEAW) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The effect of the extract (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) on fasting blood glucose (FBG), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) level and liver glycogen content were investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats after 14 days. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was also performed on the diabetic rats. Dose selection was made on the basis of acute oral toxicity study. Phytochemical analysis of the root extract was carried out following standard procedures. The most significant (p<0.05) reduction of FBG level of 74.06% was observed for 400 mg/kg in alloxan induced diabetic rats. A significant reduction (p<0.05) in serum TC and TG level of 50.43 and 58.05% respectively was also observed for the high dose of the extract. The SGOT and SGPT levels were significantly (p<0.05) reduced. The MEAW also showed improvement of body weight in diabetic rats. The animals showed no mortality at a dose of 5000 mg/kg while results of phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of mainly alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, saponins, steroids and tannins. These results show that the root of Acalypha wilkesiana possesses antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and hepatoprotective effects.
Key words: Acalypha wilkesiana, cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), triglyceride.
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