International Journal of
Peace and Development Studies

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Peace and Dev. Stud
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-6621
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJPDS
  • Start Year: 2010
  • Published Articles: 103

IJPDS Articles

Internationalization of Post-1991 political reform-induced ethnic conflicts, cross-border contraband trade and human trafficking in eastern Ethiopia

November 2023

The political changes in Ethiopia after 1991 created a context for the dynamics of ethnic conflicts, changes in local contraband trade to cross-border trade, and women trafficking, affecting social norms and leading to intersectional impacts on women and girls in eastern Ethiopia. Previous studies have primarily focused on dimensions of ethnic conflicts within a specific geographical location (territory) and their links...

Author(s): Filmon Hadaro Hando

The security-development nexus in Ethiopia since 1991: The case of eastern Wallagga zone

October 2023

In Ethiopia, security and development are often in conflict with each other, as certain development policies may harm human security and vice versa. This article aims to examine the security and development nexus in Eastern Wallagga Zone, an area that has faced various challenges related to conflict, displacement, and lack of basic infrastructures. Qualitative research design is used. Key person interviews, focus group...

Author(s): Megersa Tolera, Gutema Imana, Dejene Gemechu and Chala Dechassa  

The substantial potentials for establishment of biosphere reserve in the Afar Region, Ethiopia

July 2023

The Afar region is endowed with rich and diverse natural and cultural resources that have outstanding universal values from the perspective of culture and biodiversity conservation and it plays significant role in maintaining the arid and semi-arid part of the country. Moreover, there are considerable ecological and socio-economic opportunities in the region to enhance sustainable development as well as long-term...

Author(s): Kahsay Gebretensae and Hailu Zerfu

The quest of democratic governance for sustainable peace in Ethiopia: the case of Oromo Protest of 2014-2018

January 2023

This article examines the inexorableness of democratic governance in multinational states for sustainable peace by considering the essential questions of the Oromo Protests in Ethiopia from 2014 to 2018. Ethiopia adopted the policy of a 'democratic developmental state' in post-2000, which aimed to realize development initially and then democracy. However, the serious mass struggle was prompted in Ethiopia by the...

Author(s): Afeta Galata Gamachu,

The national peace building policy of Somaliland: Undoing what has worked?

January 2023

Part of the foundation of Somaliland’s stability over the last three decades has been its localized customary, clan-based peacebuilding mechanism. This may now be at risk. The ongoing institutionalization of Somaliland's peacebuilding structures through the National Peacebuilding Policy (NPP) reflects many features of a liberal peacebuilding milieu and legitimizes state-building models shaped by international...

Author(s): Abdulahi Hamdi I. and Mydlak Robin

Land conflict dynamics in Africa: A critical review on farmer-pastoralist conflict perspectives

February 2022

This paper examines the theoretical bases underlying the causes of land conflicts. It involves a critical analysis of various contentions surrounding land nexus violent conflicts with particular attention to farmer-pastoralist conflicts. The drive for this examination is more on a comparison of causes between such conflicts in varying contexts of African. The major aim is to broaden the understanding about the nature of...

Author(s): Mabebe Erasmus Ntumva

The impact of humanitarian aid on post conflict development in Borno State

January 2022

The protracted Boko Haram insurgency continue to ravage the Northeast Nigeria with 1.8 million people displaced and 7.1 million in dire need of humanitarian aid. The conflict also caused a great havoc on the giant stride towards development of these states which Borno state being the worst affected where an estimated 751.78 billion naira (6.898 billion dollar) worth asset were destroyed. The humanitarian aid and United...

Author(s): James Emmanuel Ada and Mukhtar Abdullahi

Sexual violence against women during the Rwandan genocide: A narrative review

December 2021

The Rwandan genocide was characterized, in addition to brutal killings, by equally brutal acts of sexual torture, mutilation, and enslavement as weapons against Tutsi women and girls on a mass scale. Existing scholarship on sexual violence has enhanced a general increased understanding of the contexts and challenges confronting survivors. Though the raping of women in combat and occupation zones is very common, it is...

Author(s): Nharaunda-Makawa Rejoice and Kurebwa Jeffrey

African continental free trade area (AfCFTA) trade vs. security dilemma: From borders’ perspective

July 2021

Africa embarked on an ambitious and promising free trade area agreement. If applied fully, it can inject a magical potion into the lives of the African economies which currently seem doomed to economic ICU. The agreement is expected to induce intra-continental trade, industrialization, integration all mainly because of free movement of people and goods. Meaning, lowering border controls and checkpoints, but, here the...

Author(s): Alazar Melkamu and Adonias Adugna

Keys to sustainable and enduring societal peace in intractable conflicts: A theoretical and empirical justification in apartheid South African peace process

July 2021

The perpetual search for solutions to societal conflicts, particularly those tagged intractable, that is, irresolvable, took a dramatic turn when South Africa, one of such age-long conflicts, bowed to mediation after about 48 years of fierce existence. Until now, no rigorously deep insight that is capable of accurately and adequately accounting for the dialectics of history that brought apartheid to such an abrupt end....

Author(s): Oguntuwase Olugbenga-Jay

Remembering summerdale: A scandal that reformed policing

April 2021

The following article contains never-before-published accounts from first-hand witnesses to the events surrounding the Summerdale Scandal, garnered by one of the authors in personal interviews with key stakeholders. These include interviews with former Evanston and Bartlett Police Chief William McHugh, former Illinois Police Superintendent James McGuire, former Cook County State’s Attorney Chief Investigator Paul...

Author(s): Greg Hoffman and Anne D. Kroemer  

Indigenous knowledge of conflict resolution for transformative peace building: Amare of Jama Woreda, Amhara - Ethiopia

April 2021

The paper focuses on the role of indigenous knowledge system in the quest for conflict resolution and sustainable peace building. The data were collected from key informants, in-depth interview, focus group discussion, and document analysis. To this end, purposive sampling is used to select the participants. The finding has revealed the existence of many local and community based customary practices and indigenous...

Author(s): Kefelegn Tesfaye

The post genocide reconciliation in Rwanda: Erasing ethnicity and building citizenship

April 2021

The Rwandan genocide, seen as the result of years of ethnic antagonization and segmentation, was followed by a political effort leading to the restructuration of Rwandan national identity in order to unify the society and eventually achieve national reconciliation. By implementing measures such as the removal of ethnic affiliation on national identity documents, or by reforming the national education curriculum, the...

Author(s): Ouafaa RAFI

Police officers’ perceptions about corruption in Zimbabwe: A case of police officers at a University

April 2021

The study investigated police officers’ perceptions about corruption in Zimbabwe. The study was informed by Bourdieu’s theory of habitus. A case study design involving a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from sixty-four respondents sampled using a census method of sampling. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics and presented on tables and pie charts. The study revealed that...

Author(s): Tapfuiwa James Katsinde

Human security and threats associated with the impacts of 2019 Hong Kong social unrest

April 2021

Hong Kong has just experienced unprecedented social unrest that started in 2019. The unrest dragged the city into a chaotic situation that had not been seen in the last 50 years. Violence and crimes occurred across every corner of the territory, affecting every citizen’s livelihood. Several studies have been carried out, analyzing its social, economic, and political causes. However, most of them are limited to the...

Author(s): Bryan Tzu Wei LUK

Investigating the impact of child abduction and cattle raiding among the Dinka, Nuer and Murle communities in Jonglei State, South Sudan

August 2020

Child abduction and cattle raiding pose a threat to sustainable socio-economic development among the Dinka, the Nuer and the Murle communities in Jonglei State, South Sudan. A 7-month study was conducted to investigate the impacts of child abduction and cattle raiding among the three communities-Dinka, the Nuer and the Murle community. Two hundred fifty households, one hundred fifty two Key Informant Interviews (KIIs)...

Author(s): Bithou M. Mayik  

Urban local authorities in Zimbabwe and the new constitution

February 2020

Urban areas have always attracted the attention of political parties due to their dense demographic compositions, hence their popularity as battle grounds among political parties. This has resulted in amendments and consolidation of local government legislation to ensure that urban local authorities enjoy only delegated powers and remain accountable to the central administration. Consequently local authorities remained...

Author(s): Mapuva Jephias and Takabika Tendai  

Trust relationship: The way of peace between India and Pakistan

December 2019

This article investigates the root cause of conflict between India and Pakistan and ways to mitigate it. Following ‘Trust Relationship’ theory, both countries can send a number of their citizens to the neighbour country for some useful purposes. But as they come to the other country as a part of Trust Relationship pact, they need not to be harassed by long process of Passport and Visa processing, instead...

Author(s): Anindya Sinha  

Extremist violence, secular and religious: Is there a more basic counter path?

June 2019

This paper argues that the present counter-measures to deal with the plague of extremist violence in the world are inadequate, in that they are largely reactive rather than addressing the root causes, which are prejudices of various kinds. It postulates the need for a united global approach in this matter based on spiritual principles.   Key words: Extremism, extremist violence, terrorism, prejudice,...

Author(s): Graham Nicholson  

Presenting natures, factors, and security implications of farmland related inter-household conflict in Northern Ethiopian Highlands of Wollo: Evidences from Jamma Woreda

May 2019

The focus of this study is to investigate and analyze the different factors of inter-household conflicts over farmland. The study further sought to assess the human security implications on the community of the study area. It has been found that farmers in the study area are suffering from land-related conflicts and its associated impacts. Descriptive-case study was employed in the study. In-depth interviews with key...

Author(s): Mulugeta Tesfaye Teshome  

Countering “Islamic fundamentalism” and out group hostility in North-East Ethiopia: Kemissie city administration Muslims

December 2018

Religious fundamentalism and inter/out group conflict have gained international concerns. Fundamentalism in relation to Islam is subject to debate and controversy, in particular because of the way in which Islam has been objectified as the fundamentalist by the West. Fundamentalism is understood as exclusive to religion. And the research intends to explore the responses, positions and views of Muslims in tackling the...

Author(s): Ayalew Yimer  

Christian-Muslim dialogue with particular reference to Pentecostals and Muslims in Nairobi, Kenya

December 2018

Interfaith dialogue is becoming a household name in our global society within the context of religious pluralism. Christians and Muslims are widely spread across the globe commanding almost a half of global population. Some Christians, particularly among some Pentecostals view Muslims with distrust, apprehension and rivalry. In Nairobi, Kenya, features of mistrust, disharmony, and intolerance among Pentecostal churches...

Author(s): Patrick Mburu Kamau  

Community participation in transformation of rural livelihoods and climate smart farming technologies in the semi-arid lands of Kenya

September 2018

Semi-arid areas in developing countries continue to depend on rain-fed agriculture which is exacerbated by climate change and poor governance. Despite efforts and investments by governmental and non-governmental organizations to address the issue of food insecurity in the semi-arid areas of Kenya, the problem still persists. The communities have designed themselves to be resource poor whereas they are not. This paper...

Author(s): Jane Mutune and Abdimajid Nunow

Rural development: Lessons never learnt

September 2018

Life is supposed to be a great teacher, but in the development field lessons have never been learnt because errors of decades ago continue being entrenched today, by more enlightened people. This paper deploys critical theories of rural development and community participation to explain why communities resist development projects. One such incident is community resistance to a donor-funded mega irrigation project in...

Author(s): Shadreck Tanyanyiwa  

Remedying the retreat in the protection of citizens’ international human rights

July 2018

The article argues that in the light of the many continuing gross abuses of international human rights perpetrated in many parts of the world and the growing disillusionment with the international human rights regime as a whole, the regime needs comprehensive reassessment.  It is argued that the underlying cause of this situation is the disunity of the present global system and its competing systems of...

Author(s): Graham Nicholson

Security, peace and development: Unpacking discursive constructions of wartime rape and sexual violence in Syria

April 2018

The ‘rape-as-a-weapon’ of war narrative has been particularly influential in the securitization of sexual violence. Drawing upon ideas about the fetishization of Conflict-Related Sexual Violence (CRSV), this article unpacks the language used within this security paradigm. Using an original case study, discourse analysis is used to unpack how policymakers, activists and the news media construct a...

Author(s): Stacy Banwell

Relative deprivation: An explanation to inter-ethnic conflict in Metekel Zone, North Western Ethiopia, since 1991

March 2018

This study explains chief causes of covert and overt conflict between indigenous and non-indigenous ethnic groups of Metekel zone, since 1991. For the sake of convenience, however, particular emphasis is given to the conflict between Agew and Gumuz. The study employs relational ethnography research design. The data collected through in-depth interview, observation, informal conversation, and review of available...

Author(s): Dagnachew Ayenew  

Natural resources and civil conflicts: Policy analysis under general equilibrium

December 2017

In this paper, a two-period general equilibrium model on the relationship between natural resources and civil conflict has been developed. Unlike existing literature, both resource extraction and wage rate are considered as endogenous during the conflict. The main purpose of the paper is to examine policy options for international community to limit the conflict intensity. It has been found out that a current...

Author(s): Md. Didarul Hasan and Sajal Lahiri

Changes and continuity in the conceptualization of development: A review

November 2017

Development has been among the most contested terminologies in the field of politics, sociology and economics over the last two to three centuries. Development is a concept with diverse view across the world and among different scholars, mainly because of its widely changing conceptualization and lack of unified and internationally accepted standards used to measure development across countries and organizations. From...

Author(s): Jarso Galchu

National dialogue as solution to African problems: The D. R. Congo in focus

October 2017

Some African leaders cause problems in Africa when they breach peace accords, rig elections or manipulate their respective constitutions in order to remain in power indefinitely. At the same time, they expect a frustrated opposition to come along through national dialogues and help to quench the fire which they have deliberately ignited. It appears however that lasting solutions to political crisis are yet to be found...

Author(s): Jean-Marie Mbombo

Somalia’s turbulent path to peace and stability

July 2017

After gaining its independence in 1960, Somalia tried in vain to unite all Somalis in the Horn of Africa. As part of that project, Siad Barre launched a full-scale invasion of the Ogaden in 1977 in an attempt to take this vast territory from Ethiopia. But Somalia’s crushing defeat in the 1977/78 war brought about far reaching repercussions. Armed resistance against Siad Barre’s government eventually led to...

Author(s): Fantahun Ayele

The reasons behind the debates and discussions on population growth: Positive or negative impacts on economic, social, political, natural resources and environmental developments

June 2017

The reasons behind the debates and discussions on population growth and the impacts on economic, social, political, natural resources and environmental developments have different motives, for instance ideologies or class struggle. The so-called North-South-Conflict is one reason behind the issue. In other words, developed countries are not willing to share the resources of the Third World countries with these...

Author(s): Kiros Abeselom

Road traffic accident: Human security perspective

March 2017

The objective of this study is to assess road traffic accident based on human security perspective. In this study, an attempt is made to analyze the causes, contributing and determinant factors, and effects of road traffic accident with regard to it’s over all linkage with human security. The study tried to explore how road traffic accident is a human security threat in the contemporary world. Methodologically,...

Author(s): Micheale Kihishen Gebru

Political party youth wings and political violence in sub-Sahara Africa: A case of Ghana

February 2017

This paper presents findings from a study of political violence by party youth wings in sub-Sahara African polities from 1990 to date. Using a case study of Ghana, the research draws some similarities, and or differences in the mechanisms through which youth wings perpetrate violence across other parts of the sub-region. During the December 2016 general elections in Ghana, the aggressive role of party youth wings was...

Author(s): Sebastian Angzoorokuu Paalo

Name your price: Economic compensation and suicide terrorism

December 2016

Suicide terrorism remains a difficult action to rationally explain. Often, scholars rely on ideological or religious motivations to explain these seemingly irrational actions. While it seems clear that non-economic motives matter, it is also the case that economic compensation can incentivize suicide terrorism in ways that allow for more robust suicide terrorism campaigns. As such, we would expect that organizations...

Author(s): Samuel Rohrer and David Sobek

Implications of ethnic nationalism: The Niger delta region of Nigeria as a case study

November 2016

This paper examines the implications of ethnic nationalism within the context of the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. It employs the methods of analysis and evaluation in investigating the concepts of national question and nationalism, implications of the two concepts as well as advantages and disadvantages of nationalism. Its aim is to identify the factors responsible for disunity and consequently suggest means of...

Author(s): Sulaiman Olayinka Opafola

International responses to human trafficking: The Ghanaian experience

November 2016

Human trafficking in this era has been conceptualized as a global event that is likened to slavery because of the inhumane treatment that the victims go through. The scope and the criminal aspect of it demands police initiative to curb the menace. The current researcher used semi-structured qualitative interview, direct observation, and review of documents to gather data from Ghana Police Service and some anti-human...

Author(s): Gerald Dapaah Gyamfi

Semiotics expert system: An integrative approach towards maintenance of community peace

September 2016

Optimum peace maintenance amongst monitored communities is needed for sustainable and social development of the communities and society. The maintenance of peace with the application of correct strategies should be able to deliver maximum degree of trust and strength of relations among the communities. This study presents STES, an expert system that utilizes a biologically inspired novel optimization technique of...

Author(s): Saurabh Shanu, Siddharth Talwar Benet Hermon, Ojasvi Goswami and Neelu Jyoti Ahuja

Employment creation, income generation, poverty and women in the informal sector: Evidences from urban Eritrea

August 2016

This study is set out to investigate poverty and women in the informal sector with evidences from urban areas of Eritrea. The study uses descriptive technique on primary data collected using interview and questionnaire from 12 towns distributed throughout the 6 administrative regions of the country. The approach adopted includes both a survey and structured interviews targeted at women who are active in the informal...

Author(s): Fitsum Ghebregiorgis, Habteab Tekie Mehreteab and Stifanos Hailemariam

“To summon the nations”: Russia and The Hague peace conferences

July 2016

A consideration of the history and importance of the Hague Peace Conferences of 1899 and 1907, being the first of such Conferences held otherwise than at the conclusion of a conflict and designed to lay the foundations of a global peace and to reduce the risk or effects of war.  It includes a consideration of the legacy of such Conferences and plans for a third Conference, being the centenary of the first in 1999,...

Author(s): Graham Nicholson

How do interventions in land administration in post-conflict situations facilitate state building?

June 2016

In earlier research in the area of land administration in conflict and post-conflict contexts the relation between land administration and state building was recognised. This paper aims at increasing the understanding of this relation. Available literature is explored to learn more about the concepts of state building, and land and its administration in post-conflict contexts. The most suitable methodology to increase...

Author(s): Dimo Todorovski, Jaap Zevenbergen, Paul Van Der Molen

The democratic peace theory: Validity in relation to the European Union and 'Peaceful' cooperation between United States and China

May 2016

According to the democratic peace theory, democratic states are less likely to go to war with other democratic states. Consequently, the ultimate goal of the theory is to create a world of democracies that is, a world without war. However, from the realist perspective in some cases democracies go to war with other democracies to influence their power. This paper will critically analyze the validity of democratic peace...

Author(s): Nibal Attia

The clash of sexuality or rhetoric of human rights: Exploring same sex marriage and sustainable human development nexus

January 2016

On June 26th 2015, the United States Supreme Court legalized same sex marriage. Similarly, the adoption of the United Nations Human Rights resolution for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) rights during its 27th session in September 2014 by a 25-14 vote margin after more than an hour of debate, condemns violence and discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity across the globe. Some...

Author(s): Luke Amadi and Steve Wordu

Scheduling village heads in enhancing conflict resolution and peace building in a rural community

November 2015

This study assessed the effectiveness of village heads in Simatelele Ward, Binga District in resolving conflicts in Zingozo village. The study was from April 2012 to June 2013. Four village heads were sampled using a simple random sampling technique and four types of conflicts common to all the four selected village heads were taken. A mathematical model was developed to assign village heads to cases they can resolve...

Author(s): Mwembe Desmond

The paradox of Cameroon-Nigeria interactions: Connecting between the edges of opportunity/benefit and quandary

March 2015

Cameroon and Nigeria are neigbouring nations that share a common border, people and history. Both nations relied on this propinquity to create opportunities that benefited them in the economic, social and the political domains. But considering the ethnic character of and the stakes involved in controlling the natural resources of the borderlands, these opportunistic benefits were intermittently perturbed by incidences...

Author(s): Mark Bolak Funteh

The effects of communal land sub-division and land use changes on household waste production in the Southern rangelands of Kenya

February 2015

In the past few decades, the inhabitants of now Kajiado County in the southern rangelands of Kenya have experienced changes in land tenure and in land use that have impacted other aspects of their livelihoods as well as the environment. The study sought to examine these changes within the context of their potential influences on the household production and management of solid waste. Local residents from three different...

Author(s): Ekisa T. George

Emerging role of NGOs in the world’s socio-political affairs

January 2015

The past two decades had witnessed tremendous increase in the role of NGOs in various walks of life and it is now an established fact that their role cannot be sidelined any state while formulating and implemented the her policies. The number of NGOs has grown tremendously and so their functions, conservatively estimated at between 6,000 and 8,000....  They are bringing the voice of voiceless and marginalized to...

Author(s): Firdoos Dar

Genuine leadership and the global financial crisis

January 2015

Since the primitive era, mankind is facing repeated crises and wars at increasing levels. One of the main reason might be a continuous misunderstanding of the leaders’ activities and goals. For instance the 2007 Global Financial Crisis was the result of high risk lending, failure of regulators, inflated credit rating and investment bank abuses. Hopefully, contemporary researches focus on the behaviors...

Author(s): Franck Renand

The era of empire or globalization? The impact of the global shift on development thinking and society

December 2014

This study is a literature review with the ambition to answer the question, what is globalization? The myriad of perspectives, both for and against globalization theses makes it an elusive concept and can be confusing both for undergraduate students and laypersons. Hence, in this paper globalization theses reconsidered, pulling together diverse perspectives in order to provide an alternative way of understanding...

Author(s): James E. Conable

An essay on the necessity for universal outlawing of use of force in the 21st century

October 2013

  The essay addresses what is argued to be a pressing need for the introduction of binding law, applicable at all levels of human society, in the form of a ban on the use of force as a method of conflict resolution. It is envisaged that the proposed legal ban would operate at both the national and international levels and would be given the force of a peremptory norm or ius cogens, applicable to and...

Author(s): Graham Nicholson

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