Journal of
Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

  • Abbreviation: J. Chem. Eng. Mater. Sci.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-6605
  • DOI: 10.5897/JCEMS
  • Start Year: 2010
  • Published Articles: 87

JCEMS Articles

Synthesis and characterization of hemp and flax fiber reinforced geopolymer composites

July 2020

Reinforced Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) has for a long time been a viable binder until the realization of its huge contribution to the excess carbon dioxide emitted in the atmosphere during its fabrication. The aim of this research work is to synthesize and characterize Collie fly ash based geopolymer composites reinforced with flax and hemp fibers. It was shown in this work that fiber reinforced geopolymer composites...

Author(s): Elvis Sikapizye and Adrian Habanyama  

Akbari-Ganji’s method “AGM” to chemical reactor design for non-isothermal and non-adiabatic of mixed flow reactors

May 2020

In this paper, the chemical reactor with the energy changing (non-isotherm) and non-monotonic reactions in a mixed flow is investigated and also the sets of complex nonlinear differential equations obtained from the reaction behavior in these systems are solved by a new method. The set of differential equations are consisted of the mass equilibrium and energy (temperature) changing at concentration governing the...

Author(s): M. R. Akbari, Sara Akbari, Esmaeil Kalantari  and D. D. Ganji  

Effect of plasma magnet power supplies operating temperatures on the thermal life of space-vehicles

May 2019

The galactic and solar radiation effect on astronauts in space during manned-space missions is one of the issues that scientists are dealing with to overcome this disaster. Furthermore, in space missions to Mars, Titan, and beyond, a powerful propulsion system is required. Recently, with the enhancement of technology in plasma generation, scientists tried to design and build a plasma radiation shield and plasma...

Author(s): A. Anvari

Finding the safest planet for carbon structures in terms of thermal life

April 2019

With achieving higher technologies, and as the population of our planet grows and sources of Earth consume every day, scientists are trying to find an alternative planet to build a second home for mankind. During the last decades, Mars seemed to be the first planet as a candidate for second home of human. Nevertheless, a few years ago a new planet has been discovered to be suitable for human life. Titan, Saturn’s...

Author(s): A. Anvari

Objects impact effect on thermal fatigue life of unidirectional T700 Carbon Fiber/Epoxy

February 2019

The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of meteorites and debris impact on thermal fatigue life of unidirectional T700 carbon fiber/epoxy composite material. This composite material may be applied in space structures for space missions. These structures are exposed to thermal cycles as they go in and out of the planet’s shadow. If in this environmental condition, meteorites and debris impact...

Author(s): Anvari A.  

Thermal life of space Elevators

December 2018

Since the introduction of space elevators by Tsiolkovsky in 1895, many researchers, engineers, and designers stepped forward to suggest theories for the construction of space elevators. Based on the investigations made by many authors for building space elevators, Earth-to-space, Lunar space, and Mars-to-space elevators can contribute for future space exploration and colonization. In the presented study, the aim is to...

Author(s): Ali Anvari  

Super reinforcement of MWCNT/Epoxy by considering thermal fatigue resistance management technology

November 2018

Strengthening fibers and layers in nanocomposites can make these materials suitable for many applications such as automobile, sport goods, aerospace, etc. Currently, scientists are still looking for materials with higher strength, but still lightweight because of consuming less fuel and energy in industries such as automobile and aerospace. In this research, by considering thermal fatigue resistance management...

Author(s): Anvari A.  

Critical temperature estimation method for triple-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/epoxy resin composite material

October 2018

The main objective of this research is to estimate the critical temperature for triple-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/epoxy resin. Critical temperature in this study is the temperature that inter-laminar shear stress in interfaces of triple-walled CNTs and epoxy resin is the maximum value. At maximum inter-laminar shear stress, the stress concentration between triple-walled CNTs and epoxy resin is the maximum. This...

Author(s): A. Anvari

Production of bioethanol from stems of Sorghum saccharatum monitoring kinetic parameters of fermentation

September 2018

The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of three stumps of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the ethanol bioconversion of the diluted stems of sweet sorghum (Sorghum saccharatum L.) and to monitor the kinetic parameters of fermentation. Therefore, different initial concentrations of three stems from S. cerevisiae are used to ferment the juice. The juice obtained was formulated from one kilogram (1 kg) of...

Author(s): I. Mossi, E. S. Adjou, C. P. A. Dossa, G. Nonviho M. M. Conforte Adda, B. B. Yehouenou and D. C. K. Sohounhloué

Effects of artificial aging heat treatment on mechanical properties and corrosion behaviour of AA6XXX aluminium alloys

September 2018

In this study, the effects of artificial aging heat treatment on mechanical properties and corrosion behaviour of AA6XXX alloy were investigated. The effects of artificial aging time on microstructure and mechanical properties of alloy were analysed and at the same time corrosion behaviour was determined by corrosion tests. For experimental investigations, the alloy samples prepared in appropriate sizes were heated to...

Author(s): Adem Onat  

Cycle numbers to failure for magnesium and its alloys in human body fluid

March 2018

The fundamental goal of this research is to provide a method to predict the fatigue life of Magnesium and its alloys in human body fluid environment. Estimation of fatigue life of Magnesium and its alloys in human body fluid environment can help doctors and patients to choose the best biomaterial for implantation surgery. This fact is true due to the reason that based on the fatigue life of these materials it can be...

Author(s): Alijani S. and Anvari A.

Fatigue life prediction of unidirectional carbon fiber/epoxy composite on Mars

November 2017

In the presented study, by applying analytical methods and using experimental data, equations are achieved to predict the fatigue life of unidirectional carbon fiber/epoxy composite (UCFEC) that is applied in aerospace structures. The experimental data used to obtain these equations are achieved by low earth orbit (LEO) environment simulation experiment and other experiments. By employing convex curves analytical...

Author(s): A. Anvari

Thermal fatigue life of carbon nanotube wire and unidirectional carbon fiber/epoxy composite (UCFEC) in earth orbit

November 2017

The most important target of this study is to develop a method to compare the materials’ degradation due to thermal fatigue and temperature variation between the carbon nanotube wire and unidirectional carbon fiber/epoxy composite (UCFEC). In the presented study, by using experimental results data, thermal fatigue life of carbon nanotube wire and unidirectional carbon fiber/epoxy was compared after being exposed...

Author(s): A. Anvari

Failure of Nickel-based super alloy (ME3) in aerospace gas turbine engines

October 2017

The significant goal of this study is to develop a system to determine the margin of safety for ME3 super alloy in aerospace gas turbine engines. This margin of safety can be defined as critical temperature, force stress, exposure time, and cycles. In this research, by applying analytical solutions and using experimental data, equations are obtained to predict the life of a nickel-base super alloy in aerospace gas...

Author(s): A. Anvari

Mechanical properties of natural fiber reinforced polymer (NFRP) composites using anahaw (Saribus rotundifolius) fibers treated with sodium alginate

October 2017

Natural fiber reinforced polymer (NFRP) composites have been a focus of various research projects because of their advantages compared to traditional fiber reinforced plastics. In this study, Anahaw (Saribus rotundifolius) was used as fiber source because it is abundant in the Philippines. The fibers were treated by immersing in a sodium alginate solution and then in a calcium chloride solution. The treated fibers were...

Author(s): T. P. Tumolva, J. K. R. Vitoa, J. C. R. Ragasaa and R. M. C. Dela Cruza

Production of aluminium casting with open-cell aluminium foam core

August 2017

This research aims to investigate the influence of production conditions on the quality of aluminium casting with open-cell aluminium foam core. Open-cell aluminium foams were produced using vacuum pressure to aid molten metal to be fill into space of water-soluble space holders to obtain aluminum foams with specific pore sizes. The produced foams were then used as cores for castings. Optical microscope was employed for...

Author(s): C. Domrong and S. Srimanosaowapak

Effect of nano-carbon percentage on properties of composite materials

July 2017

The presented study aims to investigate the role of nano-carbon percentage on material properties of different composites. Recently, nano-carbon composites are used in different industries like aerospace. Thus, it seems necessary to determine the best amount of nano-carbon in composite materials. The best percentage of nano-carbon can be defined as the amount that causes an increase in some of the useful...

Author(s): Ali Anvari

Crack growth as a function of temperature variation in carbon fiber/epoxy

June 2017

The main objective of this paper is to develop a method to predict the crack length and crack growth rate in unidirectional carbon fiber/epoxy composite as a function of temperature variation. In order to measure the crack length and crack growth rate, a new analytical method by applying experimental procedure data is developed. By the novel analytical method, relations are achieved to predict the crack length and crack...

Author(s): Ali Anvari

Photocatalytic oxidation of 17 α-Ethinylestradiol by UV-activated TiO2 in batch and continuous-flow reactor

May 2017

In this study, the photocatalytic oxidation by UV-activated TiO2 was investigated for the degradation of a 15 mgL-1 solution of 17 α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) in an ultra-pure water matrix. The TiO2 adsorption, solution pH and catalyst TiO2 concentration were evaluated. Operating as a batch reactor, the system showed a 90% removal, with a 40-min retention time, a pH value of 8 a TiO2 concentration of 0.1 gL-1, and a...

Author(s): Carvalho R. V., Isecke B. G., Carvalho E. and Teran F. J. C.

Addition of carbon tetrachloride as propulsion to the thermal cracking reactor based on the amount of coke formed in different coil outlet temperatures (COT)

January 2017

Nowadays, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is the most usual plastic. Therefore, to make PVC, its monomer called vinyl chloride (VCM) must be produced first. It is a severely endothermic reaction that is done in an ethylene dichloride thermal cracking reactor within a temperature range of 680 to 758°K and pressure range of 2500000 Pascal. Thus, this cracking reaction changes into hydrochloric acid and VCM. In production...

Author(s): Afshin Davarpanah

A constitutive model on flow stress prediction from the contribution of twin and grain refinement, strain and strain rate during surface mechanical attrition treatment of metals

September 2016

A new constitutive equation is developed to model the flow stress on a metal surface undergone high speed impacts that result in strain hardening. The new equation is based on the Johnson-Cook model and has considered the effects of strain, strain rate, grain refinement, twin formation and twin spacing. Two mechanisms for the strain hardening are proposed: Grain refinement or twin formation, depending on the strain...

Author(s): Wing Yan LEUNG, San Qiang SHI, Jian LU, Hai Hui RUAN and Li Min ZHOU

Development of leucite glass-ceramics for non-metallic dental product

August 2016

The objective of this study was to determine the potential of using Malaysian silica sand as the SiO2 raw material in producing leucite (SiO2-Al2O3-K2O) glass-ceramics. The crystallization, mechanical and biological properties of the glass-ceramic was studied. A starting glass composition in the system of leucite was melted in an electric furnace, quenched in deionized water and dry milled to obtain glass powder. The...

Author(s): Siti Mazatul Azwa Saiyed Mohd Nurddin and Malek Selamat

Preliminary research on strength of polymer modified concrete with copolymer natural rubber as concrete additives

August 2016

Polymer modified concrete is one of the alternative material of construction to obtain better performance in strength and durability of concrete. There are some types of PMC such as natural rubber, synthetic rubber, modified rubber and asphalt.  In this work, copolymer of natural rubber styrene and copolymer of natural rubber methacrylate were used as PMC added to Portland cement concrete and Portland Pozzolan...

Author(s): Sih Wuri Andayani, , Rochim Suratmana, Iswandi Imrana, Mardiyatia Y and Ariyadi Basukib

The effect of chitosan on physical and mechanical properties of paper

July 2016

Chitosan is a natural polymer gotten from shrimp and crab skeleton; chemical structure of chitosan is similar to cellulose where hydroxyl (OH) in glucose molecule in cellulose is replaced by amine (–NH2) in chitosan. From the chemical structure and its properties, chitosan can be used as a filler and adhesive to replace the traditional materials and it will improve several properties of papers such as to increase...

Author(s): S. Habibie, M. Hamzah, M. Anggaravidya and E. Kalembang

Effect of induced stress on the corrosion rate of medium carbon steel in saline environment

September 2015

This study investigated how 0.33% medium carbon steel is affected by induced stress in a saline environment. Three geometries namely U-bend, C-ring and I-shape samples were formed representing varying degrees of stress level induced on the samples. The test specimens were subjected to static loading in saline environment containing 15.0 wt.%, 10.0 wt.% and 3.5 wt.% of sodium chloride (NaCl) for a typical exposure time...

Author(s): Alo Oluwaseun A. and Ibitoye Simeon A.

Comparison between mixing and shaking techniques during the destabilization-hydrolysis of the acid mine drainage (AMD) using Ca(OH)2 and Mg(OH)2

August 2015

Acid mine drainage (AMD) is detrimental to both humans and the ecosystem, and contains sulphuric acid and heavy metals, which have to be removed by dosing the coagulants. A 200 mL sample of AMD, emanating from a mining area in South Africa was poured into 500 mL glass beakers or Erlenmeyer flasks and were dosed with 0.043 M Ca(OH)2, 0.043 M Mg(OH)2 and synthetic 0.043 M CaMg.2(OH)2 and treated in a jar test or shaking...

Author(s): Ntwampe, I. O., Waanders, F. B. and Bunt T. S. S. R.

Chemical reactivity between CaCO3 and Ca(OH)2 in acid mine drainage (AMD) with mixing and shaking techniques during the destabilization-hydrolysis of the AMD

August 2015

The acid mine drainage (AMD) was poured into five 500 ml glass beakers. The samples were dosed with synthetic af-PFCl of Ca(OH)2 and af-PFCl of CaCO3 polymers respectively. The samples were treated in a jar test and a shaker at 250 rpm for 2 min, and thereafter were allowed to settle for an hour after which the pH, conductivity and turbidity (TSS) were measured. A similar second set of experiments was conducted by...

Author(s): Ntwampe, I. O., Waanders, F. B. and Bunt J.R.

Preparation of phosphoric acid activated carbons from Canarium Schweinfurthii Nutshell and its role in methylene blue adsorption

July 2015

Activated carbons were prepared by phosphoric acid activation of Canarium Schweinfurthii spent nutshell. The activation conditions for particles with average diameter of 2.36 mm, conducted in nitrogen chamber, were evaluated at 40 and 60% acid concentration, substrate/activating agent  (impregnation) ratio of 1:1 to 1:4, activation time of 20 to 60 min and temperatures of 200 and 400°C. The results showed that...

Author(s): Adegboyega Surajudeen Olawale, Olusegun Ayoola Ajayi, Michael Sunday Olakunle, Mku Thaddeus Ityokumbul and Sam Sunday Adefila

Effects of mass transfer resistance and coking on yield during fluid catalytic cracking of heavy hydrocarbon fractions

April 2015

A transient model for an industrial fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) riser is here presented. The FCC riser models of previous researchers were mostly based on the assumption of negligible mass transfer resistance. This assumption reduced the accuracy of the models. In this work, the effects of mass transfer resistance and coking on the yield of FCC reactions were modeled and simulated. A five-lump reaction scheme was...

Author(s): Olanrewaju Omotola F., Okonkwo Paul C. and Aderemi Benjamin O.

Effect of dioctyl phthalate (DOP) modified matrix on the thermal stability of glass fiber reinforced composite

October 2014

Unsaturated polyester was modified with dioctyl phthalate (DOP) and used as matrix in glass fiber reinforced composite. The effect on the thermal stability of the composite was studied in this work. The results of the modification showed that modified matrix had the best thermal stability at 5 wt% DOP with temperature of 373°C at 20% weight loss as compared with unmodified of temperature of 346°C at the same...

Author(s): Muhammed Tijani Isa, Abdulkarim Salawu Ahmed, Benjamin Olufemi Aderemi, Razaina Mat Taib, Hazizan Md Akil and Ibrahim Ali Mohammed-Dabo

Steel making experience in the use of Nigerian Iron Ore at the Delta Steel Company, Nigeria

September 2014

The production of steel from the locally available Itakpe Iron Ore in Nigeria was achieved in the Delta Steel Direct Reduction-Electric Arc Furnace Plant. The ore was originally thought to be unsuitable for use in the direct reduction process due to its low total iron content, less than 64% and high gangue content which was in excess of 4% and above the maximum acceptable limit of 3.5%. Pilot and Plant tests were...

Author(s): Oluwafemi O. Olayebi

Antoine vapor pressure correlation: Generalization and prediction of coefficients of normal Alkanes

August 2014

This work presents two developments in Antoine vapor pressure correlation: (1) Generalization of the correlation using the principle of corresponding state; (2) Prediction of the Antoine coefficients form molecular weight. The coefficients of the generalized correlation are correlated to molecular weight (r2=0.99) for the group of normal alkanes (C1 to C20). The method is validated using experimental data obtained from...

Author(s): A. A. Rabah

Remediation of a simulated petroleum polluted water using pulverised used: Water sachet (Polyethylene)

July 2014

The potential of using used-water-sachets, a synthetic polymeric waste, which is not only readily available but indiscriminately littered around Nigerian urban and rural areas, as an adsorbent in removal of oil spilled on water was investigated. Used-water-sachets, a waste generated all over the country, has been converted into a low cost adsorbent. The sachets were collected, pretreated and pulverised to adsorb crude...

Author(s): Edoga M. O., Kovo A. S. and Oledibe M. C.

Development and corrosion behaviour (Electrochemical Polarization Method) of aluminium alloy (LM-13) reinforced with Nano-ZrO2 chilled metal matrix composites (CNMMCs)

June 2014

This paper presents the results obtained and the discussion made from a series of corrosion experiments involving aluminum alloy (LM 13) reinforced with Nano-ZrO2, size of the particles dispersed varies from 100 to 200 nm and amount of addition varies from 3 to 15 wt.% in steps of 3 wt.%. The resulting CNMMCs are solidified under the influence of copper chill of 25 mm thickness to study the effect of corrosion behavior....

Author(s): Joel Hemanth

Utilization of Co-Zeolite imidazolate frameworks (Co-ZIF) as catalyst for organic transformations

June 2014

An excellent conversions of benzaldehyde was obtained under solvent and solvent free conditions by utilizing Co(im)20.5 DMA as catalyst for the synthesis of benzylidene malononitrile. The catalytic prospect of this crystalline porous framework was extended to oxidation reactions involving ethylene glycol (EG) and ethylbenzene (EB). Unexpectedly, EG was totally oxidized to oxalic acid; which demonstrates the catalyst...

Author(s): Adewale OLAMOYESAN, Jiexiang WANG, Hua ZHANG, Yu DENG, Bodunde Joseph OWOLABI and Binghui CHEN

Characterization of palm kernel shell for materials reinforcement and water treatment

May 2014

As developing nations strive for economic sustainability, effort is geared towards exploiting biomass materials that could have alternative uses to their conventional low valued uses in order to achieve this goal. It is because of this that palm kernel shell, a byproduct of oil palm processing, is characterized for its application in construction and water treatment industries. The materials physical and chemical...

Author(s): Edmund C. Okoroigwe, Christopher M. Saffron and Pascal D. Kamdem

Time dependent mathematical model of air pollutants emitted from time-dependent elevated line source into a stable atmospheric boundary layer

December 2013

A time dependent atmospheric model is represented for chemically reactive primary pollutants emitted from an elevated line source into a stable atmospheric boundary layer, over rough surface terrains. The time dependent model was obtained through an analytical solution from a multiple Inverse Laplace transform of the atmospheric diffusion equation with the parabolic eddy-diffusion coefficient (exchange coefficient) and...

Author(s): Moka Shekhu and C. Sulochana

Inter-provincial cooperative control of air pollution in China

December 2013

Based on the status of the air pollution in China, three basic assumptions are proposed. The China’s inter-provincial cooperative control of air pollution (ICCAP) model is established by the combination of national optimization model and allocation model of cooperation benefit. A case study for the pollutant SO2 control in China shows that the proposed model is superior to the current command-order regulation. Our...

Author(s): Jian Xue, and Changmin Li

Extreme pressure property of Carbon Nano Tubes (CNT) based nanolubricant

December 2013

The paper predicts the exceptional extreme pressure properties of multi walled carbon nano tube as compared with traditional mineral oil which also contained some additives and graphite. The extreme pressure property was predicted by four ball tester. In the test the load bearing capacity of the newly developed nano oil was predicted to have a better value than the commercial available mineral oil. The weld load of the...

Author(s): Shubrajit Bhaumik, S.Prabhu, VarunKarpurapu and Nihit Uppala

Solar photocatalytic degradation of phenol using nanosized ZnO and α-Fe2O3

November 2013

This work focuses on the solar photocatalytic degradation of phenol using nanosized ZnO and α-Fe2O3 synthesized via precipitation route. The synthesized ZnO and α-Fe2O3 were characterized using XRD, UV/Vis and surface area analysis. α-Fe2O3 was found to exhibit better solar photocatalytic activity than ZnO under identical experimental conditions due to the larger surface area and low band gap of...

Author(s): Hamza A., Fatuase J.T., Waziri, S. M. and Ajayi, O. A.

Characterization and optimization of poly (3-hexylthiophene-2, 5- diyl) (P3HT) and [6, 6] phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blends for optical absorption

November 2013

Thin films were developed, characterized, and optimized for optical absorbance from blends of organic polymer poly (3-hexylthiophene-2, 5- diyl) (P3HT) and the fullerene derivative [6, 6] phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The materials of both pristine and blends were analyzed using X-ray diffraction spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy for structural properties, and fourier...

Author(s): G. Kalonga, G. K. Chinyama, M. O. Munyati and M. Maaza

BOD5 removal from tannery wastewater over ZnO-ZnFe2O4 composite photocatalyst supported on activated carbon

September 2013

Tannery wastewater with high biological oxygen demand (BOD5) was treated with ZnO-ZnFe2O4composite photocatalyst supported on activated carbon under visible light irradiation. Only 9% of BOD5 in the raw effluent were removed via adsorption on the surface of the photocatalyst in the dark for two hours. Photocatalysis with ZnO-ZnFe2O4 composite photocatalyst on activated carbon support removed 90% of...

Author(s): H. A. Mohammed, A. Hamza, I. K. Adamu, A. Ejila, S. M. Waziri and S. I. Mustapha      

Production of biolubricant from Jatropha curcas seed oil

September 2013

Extracted Jatropha oil was analyzed for their chemical and physical properties such as density, acid value, % FFA, saponification value as well as viscosities at 40 and 100oC and viscosity index. The result of the analyses of the Jatropha oil reveals that it has a very high %FFA (14.6%). Reduction was achieved by esterification with methanol (to 0.44%). The method employed for the production of biolubricant...

Author(s): Bilal S, Mohammed-Dabo I. A, Nuhu M, Kasim, S. A, Almustapha I. H and Yamusa Y. A         

Annealing and light effect on structural and electrical properties of thermally evaporated Cu2SnSe3 thin films

September 2013

  Thin films of Copper Tin Selenide (Cu2SnSe3), were successfully deposited on well-cleaned glass substrates by thermal evaporation technique. The as-deposited films were annealed in flowing purified nitrogen, N2, for 2 h in the temperature range from 100 to 500°C. The annealing temperature effect on thin films crystallization and light effect on electrical conductivity had been investigated. X-ray...

Author(s):   Mohd Amirul Syafiq Mohd Yunos, Zainal Abidin Talib and Wan Mahmood Mat Yunus    

Performance evaluation of local clays from northern Nigeria for the refining of palm oil

June 2013

  The effectiveness of adsorbents (unactivated and acid activated) developed from local raw materials - clay and diatomaceous earth samples - sourced from various geographical locations in northern Nigeria for use in the adsorptive bleaching of palm oil was studied. Two acids namely hydrochloric and sulphuric acids of varying strengths 20, 30 and 45% were used for the activation. A batch adsorption process of...

Author(s):   Mustapha S. I., Mohammed A. A., Zakari A. Y. and Mohammed H. A.  

Study on effect of semi-angle between non-parallel walls on magneto hydro dynamic Jeffery Hamel flow using semi-analytical approach

June 2013

  In this paper, magneto hydro dynamic (MHD) Jeffery-Hamel flow with nanoparticle has been investigated and its nonlinear ordinary differential equation has been solved through homotopy perturbation method (HPM). The governing boundary layer equations are written into a dimensionless form by similarity transformations. The effect of semi-angle has also been investigated in both convergent and divergent channel....

Author(s):   Mohammadreza Azimi and Alireza Azimi      

Optimum design parameter determination of biogas digester using human faeces feedstock

May 2013

  Biogas digester operation depends majorly on C/N ratio, hydraulic retention time, pH, temperature, and mixing ratio of the domestic waste used. Temperature of 15 to 45°C, C/N ratio of 20 to 30, Hydraulic retention time of 1 to 30 days, mixing ratio of 10 to 20 %w/v and pH of 6.5 to 8 were considered for the analysis. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to test whether there are statistically significant...

Author(s):   Nuhu M., Mujahid M.M, Aminu A. Hamisu, Abbas A. J, Babangida D., Tsunatu D., Aminu Y. Z, Mustapha Y., Ahmed I and Onukak I. E

Low temperature synthesis of nickel silica nanocomposites through Sol-gel route

May 2013

  Preparation of nickel (Ni) nanoparticles in the silica gel matrix for various concentrations has been achieved at low temperature. The presence of metallic Ni has been confirmed by x-ray diffraction and further supported by the presence of bright filed transmission electron microscope image, which shows presence of 5 to 8 nm diameter nanoparticles. The dielectric property was studied using complex...

Author(s): S. Dutta, S. Bose, C. K. Ghosh and G. C. Das      

Kinetics of demineralization of shrimp exoskeleton in chitin and chitosan synthesis

April 2013

  Kinetic data obtained from acid demineralization (using 1.25 N hydrochloric acid solution) of deproteinized exoskeleton of shrimp was fitted to the shrinking core models for heterogeneous reactions. The element of interest was calcium which was the most abundant element in the deproteinized shrimp (66.27%) and the mostly affected by the demineralization. Experimental kinetic data was fitted to the shrinking...

Author(s):   Ameh A. O., Isa M. T., Adeleye T. J. and Adama K. K.      

Failure analysis of bridle chain used for hoisting in mines

April 2013

  Failure of engineering components due to presence of defects in the material is common. These defects are either present in the material from the casting stage or get developed during subsequent hot working and thermal treatment operations. Identification of the origins of defects is an important task while analyzing failures where pre-existing defects in the material are the causative factors. A case study...

Author(s): Umesh Singh, M. K. Singh and Mohan Singh    

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