African Journal of
History and Culture

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Hist. Cult.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-6672
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJHC
  • Start Year: 2009

AJHC Articles in press

An Appraisal of Sheikh Okutagidi and his Da’wah Activities in Ilorin (1931-2016)

Article in Press

Ilorin is blessed with numerous Islamic scholars who engaged in Da’wah activities (call to Islam). The intense Da’wah activities earned Ilorin the proverbial title of Ilu Afa (the seat of erudite Muslim scholars). The adherence to Islamic principles and religious proselytization are major challenges confronting Islamic scholars. Sheikh Alfanla Okutagidi, a man of religious principle triumph amidst this confronting...

Author(s):Idris Ridwan Tosho and Olawale Yemisi Isaac

Symbolic Representation of Material Culture in Bun Ceremony among the Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

Article in Press

This paper deals with artistic and symbolic value of material culture of coffee or bun (ቡን) ceremony practiced in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Mixed research design has been used in the study. Survey, focus group discussion, interview, and observation have been employed to gather data. The findings indicate that majority of community members are performing bun ceremony in traditional manner. But, some emerging modifications...

Author(s):Blen Telayneh

The Imperial Land Reform Policies and the Conditions of Peasants in Highland Gimbi, Western Wallaga, Ethiopia (1941-974): Historical Perspectives

Article in Press

Land has been an economic and political phenomenon in the history of Ethiopia. The feudal governments since the time of Menelik II issued out, confiscated and redistributed land to those politically connected individuals. The objective of this study is to assess the imperial policies in land reform and the conditions of peasants in highland Gimbi, Western Wallaga from 1941 to 1974. This study has used both primary and...

Author(s):Bijiga Gerba

The Influence of the African Revolution on African Theology

Article in Press

The main thesis of this work is to portray Pan-Africanism as a movement that is destined to give all people of African descent a sense of identity, self-determination and liberation by supplying significant context for African theologians. Pan-Africanism, notwithstanding all its limitations, can be an effective instrument of African liberation and hence, proffers great opportunity for authentic theological enterprise....

Author(s):Nwuba Sr. MaryKristel Grace Chinyere

IMPACTS OF WORKPLACE CULTURAL DIFFERENCES ON INNOVATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN EUROPE

Article in Press

Because of the attributes of definition of culture, the results of studies on the impact of culture has been two-folded. Majority of studies have indicated the positive impact culture although there are some research findings who concluded culture has a negative impact due to mainly language barriers which led to low level communication which in turn led employees to low level innovation. Hence the impact of culture on...

Author(s):Kenneth Obinna Agu, Maria Fekete Farkas

Trapped in Vicious Cycles of Electoral Violence: The Trend and Praxis in Nigeria’s Democratic Culture, 1963 - 2019

Article in Press

The unprecedented spate of electoral violence and political killings in Nigeria, especially since the Fourth Republic is best described as the Hobbesian state of nature of man where life is said to be solitary, poor, brutish and short. Hobbes encapsulated this in the Latin words: bellum omnium contra omnes (war of all against all). In an attempt to avoid such scenarios, the institutions of governance evolved through...

Author(s):Uzoma Samuel Osuala

EFFECT OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT ON CULTURAL HERITAGE MANAGEMENT IN THE MEDIEVAL ROCK-HEWN CHURCHES OF LALIBELLA, ETHIOPIA

Article in Press

World Heritage is distinguished by its outstanding universal value, and by its authenticity and integrity. For this reason, proper urban development for cultural heritage management is not only urgently needed, but an awareness of this need must be brought to the attention of people around the world. Unfortunately, despite the growing awareness of heritage sites in general, there is still less understanding concerning...

Author(s):Yezihalem Sisay Takele

The Radicalism of The American Revolution

Article in Press

The American Revolution has been critical to world history as it helped shape the standard for world most renown systems of governance. While it marked the end of the British rule in their former colonies, it also laid the foundations of a strong Republic. Despite the generally assumed homogeneity among the social forces that fought the American Revolution and their advocacy for a just and equalitarian society, we have...

Author(s):Aboubacar Niambele

Civil Resistance in Ethiopia: An Overview of a Historical Development

Article in Press

A history of anti-government opposition in Ethiopia is a very complex topic and a subject extremely difficult to investigate. It runs through the analysis of intractable social crisis of the entire feudal empire covering a wide range of historical processes across ages to the various people’s movements in contemporary Ethiopia. It also involved different styles and methods over the years ranging from violent to nonviolent,...

Author(s):Amare Kenaw Aweke

The Failure of Secession in the History of Africa: the Case of Biafranization in Nigeria

Article in Press

This article primarily aimed to assess how Biafranization had failed, causes for the failure and its consequences. It is explanatory or analytical study based on systematic review of literature analyzed through unstructured qualitative method. Sources utilized for this study include books, legal documents and internets sources (books, journals, articles from different websites). The initial quest of the Ibos was internal...

Author(s):NO NO

Attempts at a comparative analysis of epigraphy on monuments of Azerbaijan of the Vth – XIII th centuries with architectural epigraphy of Uzbekistan Azerbaijan

Article in Press

Annotation: The mentioned centuries are of great importance in terms of epigraphic monuments or epigraphic architecture both in Azerbaijan and Uzbekistan to study the history of culture, religion and monuments of monumental architecture. Having a lot in common, these two states, built unique written data on some monuments with their rather "motley" ethnic paintings.The monuments of epigraphics were mainly located in...

Author(s): Pirgulieva Qanira

The Tourist Attraction Potential of the Traditional Culture of Virginity Testing Ceremonies in South Africa: An Analysis

Article in Press

This article posits that cultural and traditional practices of Virginity Testing (VT) are still prevalent and widespread in South Africa. Even though the practices are criticised by pundits as repugnant and assault on the body of a girl child, this article seeks to focus on the seemingly ritual, festivity and other interesting cultural and traditional activities that take place during the ceremony especially the reed dance...

Author(s):Motlalepula Rakubu

Oyo-Ondo Relations: A Study in Pristine Inter-group Relations in Nigeria

Article in Press

The noticeable degree of Benin and Ife influence on Ondo has not obliterated the Oyo factor as a strong force in the history of Ondo, especially its traditions of origin. This paper focuses on Oyo-Ondo connections as a study in pristine inter-group relations. It argues that although Oyo is situated in the savanna region of Yorubaland, while Ondo is placed in the forest region, certain traits offer strong proof that Ondo...

Author(s):Adegboyega Ajayi and Ajishola Omojeje

"The toponyms and their meanings among the basa’a people: towards a preservation of cultural and ancestral heritage."

Article in Press

The meaning of toponyms among the Basa’a people helps demystify toponymy and as a result, highlights its interest and cultural value. As a science, typonymy is not an exclusivity observed only amidst African peoples even less among the Basa'a. Therefore, every place has its own name that makes the difference with other places around the world. Among the Basa'a people, typonymy give praises to the people as well as social...

Author(s):Sévérin Nwaha

Insecurity, Forced Migration, and Internally Displaced Persons along the Cameroon-Nigeria Border, 2003-2018

Article in Press

The Cameroon-Nigeria border is plagued with insecurity challenges and serious threats to the border communities. Following the Boko Haram attacks, the counter-offensive by the Cameroonian and Nigerian armed forces, and the attacks between the Southern Cameroons separatists and the Cameroonian forces as a result of the Anglophone Crisis, the population along the Cameroon-Nigeria border were forced to abandon their towns and...

Author(s):Primus Fonkeng

Rural Women’s Traditional Body Adornment with special focus on Hairstyles and Tattoos. A case Study of the Dämbiya wäräda of Ethiopia

Article in Press

Body adornment is the practice of redecorating one’s body through different arts and materials. These includes tattoo, hairstyle, dressing style, jewellery and other means. Tattoo art has a long history used across the world. It played various roles in one society. The study focused on the tradition of body adornment in Dämbiya wäräda emphasizing on the art of tattoo and hairstyle. These arts have a long history in...

Author(s):Yetmgeta Alemneh

GENOCIDE HISTORY AGAINST THE TUTSI IN THE FORMER CAISSE SOCIALE DU RWANDA (CSR): THE UNTOLD STORY WITHIN THE FORMER STATE INSTITUTION

Article in Press

Studies on the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi have been too generic with minimal focus on smaller units of study in order to understand what exactly took place in those particulars areas or institutions that existed in Rwanda prior to the 1994 genocide. Therefore, this paper addresses this gap in the former Caisse Sociale du Rwanda (CSR) – currently the Rwanda Social Security Fund (RSSB). The paper critically analyses...

Author(s):Elly MUSAFIRI

African Philosophy on the Way: Theorizing Oromo Philosophy and Theology of Land (Lafi keenya lafee keenya, our land is our bones)

Article in Press

This article aims to explore and analyze Oromo’s philosophical and theological understandings of lafa, meaning land in English. Land issue has been a scorching issue in Oromo sociopolitical and economic situations under successive Ethiopian regimes. The chain the people’s notion of land has with their understandings of cultural identity, natural environment, economy, national identity, politics, human rights, and religion...

Author(s):Wake Jeo Gerbi,

NIGERIAN CULTURAL VALUES AND THE CHALLENGE OF GLOBALIZATION

Article in Press

Globalization denotes co-operation and interdependence among the independent nations of the world. Because of colonialism, neo-colonialism and the contemporary controversial globalization, Nigerians now tend to sacrifice their cultural values and inheritance on the altar of been Westernized and Americanized. Nigeria is a country with rich cultural values. Though there are variation in Nigerian culture, there also exist...

Author(s):EGBULE, PHILIP ONYEKACHUKWU

Not Every Novel is Fiction: Flora Nwapa’s Efuru, Gender Consciousness and other Histories of Oguta

Article in Press

Flora Nwapa’s Efuru is no fiction instead of historical reality of the lives and people of Oguta of southeastern Nigeria. In this paper, efforts are channeled towards revealing how Oguta women superintend over their affairs when placed side by side with other Igbo village groups. In addition, attention is paid to critical aspects of Oguta’s social and political history of the 19th and 20th as reflected in Flora Nwapa’s ...

Author(s):Uche Uwaezuoke Okonkwo

Not Every Novel is Fiction: Flora Nwapa’s Efuru, Gender Consciousness and other Histories of Oguta

Article in Press

Flora Nwapa’s Efuru is no fiction instead of historical reality of the lives and people of Oguta of southeastern Nigeria. In this paper, efforts are channeled towards revealing how Oguta women superintend over their affairs when placed side by side with other Igbo village groups. In addition, attention is paid to critical aspects of Oguta’s social and political history of the 19th and 20th as reflected in Flora Nwapa’s ...

Author(s):Uche Uwaezuoke Okonkwo

African Perspective to Conflict Resolution, Purification Or Cleansing and Reintegration Among Acholi of Northern Uganda

Article in Press

The research, Purification Or Cleansing and Reintegration Among Acholi of Northern Uganda: A Cultural Perspective To Conflict Resolution, was purposed to explore the role of positive practices in culture(s) that support the resolution and management of conflicts. The Government’s militaristic options achieved no meaningful results. Lack of peace eluded the 2006 Juba Peace negotiations. This necessitated exploration of...

Author(s):Catherine Jendia

VISUAL ARTS IN THE CELEBRATION OF THE ASAFOTUFIAMI FESTIVAL

Article in Press

The arts in the Asafotufiami festival serve as strong communication tool for the Ada culture. The visual arts and their roles in the Ada Asafotufiami festival are almost completely overlooked when it comes to the analysis and appreciation of the festival. The Asafotufiami festival is annually celebrated in pomp and pageantry as it embodies various forms of art; it has shown a remarkable capacity for survival in spite of...

Author(s):ERIC APPAU ASANTE, KOFI AGYEI AND ERNEST KABUTEY

TEAR OF DOWN TRODDEN PEOPLE OF GIMBI DISTRICTS UNDER THE UMBERELLA OF THE CENTRAL GOVERNEMENT FROM 1941 TO 1991.

Article in Press

Abstract This study deals with tear and down trodden people of Gimbi districts under the umbrella of the central government from 1941 to 1991.The people of the Oromo have a long life span of administration under Gada system in the Oromia in general and Gimbi Districts in particular. The objectives of the study is, first, the wonderful administration of the Oromo was declined by the cooperation of the central government and...

Author(s):BIRU DEREJE

Black Transnational Consciousness, Connected Historiography/Histories, and the Practice of Black Intertextuality

Article in Press

This essay studies the practice of intertextuality by black writers of the Harlem Renaissance, Haitian indigenism, and Negritude. In the first half of the twentieth century, the communities of the African Diaspora witnessed the blossoming of various literary and cultural movements. They revealed striking parallels and connections. From the 1920s to the 1940s, writers of the Harlem Renaissance in the United States,...

Author(s):Celucien Joseph

Grain Porters in Western Hausaland

Article in Press

Abstract The oldest and the most widespread form of transport system in any part of the world is human porterage, which simply means the carriage of goods by human being on the head, shoulder or on the back as porters, transport themselves by walking within a particular distance. The people that provided this type of services are simply referred to as porters. The article is neither on long distance nor on short distance...

Author(s): Murtala Ahmed Rufa'i

LEADERSHIP SUCCESSION IN ZIMBABWE’S PENTECOSTAL CHURCHES LEADERSHIP SUCCESSION IN ZIMBABWE’S PENTECOSTAL CHURCHES LEADERSHIP SUCCESSION IN ZIMBABWE'S PENTECOSTAL CHURCHES

Article in Press

This study sought to understand the leadership succession issues in Pentecostal churches in Zimbabwe, focusing on ZAOGA and AFM churches. The research compared how the two largest Pentecostal churches in Zimbabwe apply leadership principles in assuring peaceful continuity of their churches through leadership succession. Pentecostalism is a very strong Christian fundamental movement and an extreme of Protestantism....

Author(s): JEFFREY KUREBWA

HISTORICAL MILESTONES IN THE PROMOTION OF MODERN NIGERIAN ART THROUGH OSOGBO EXPERIMENTAL WORKSHOP (1961-1967) (The Nigerian Art Patrons/Connoisseurs)

Article in Press

In the past, Nigerian art was described as being crude, primitive, inferior, unpolished and unsophisticated. Explorers from the Western part of the World viewed it as mere souvenir materials otherwise known as “curios”. Missionaries classified the Nigerian artistic works as being “fetish” and which should must be destroyed. Hence, the artistic works of Nigeria was not recognized globally. The upsurge of Modern Nigerian art...

Author(s):Banjo, Abiodun

THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF ISLAM IN ADO-EKITI 1836 – 2016.

Article in Press

This paper examined the growth and development of Islam in Ado – Ekiti from the earliest time and depicts the evolvement of Islam and the contributions of different Islamic organizations in the town. However, Muslims in Ado Ekiti faced strict oppositions at its inception because the people, like other Yoruba were traditional worshippers prior to the advent of Islam. The study found out that Islam in Ado Ekiti has made...

Author(s):Buhari, Lateef Oluwafemi

The New History in Cameroon: the statusquo

Article in Press

For two decades now Cameroon History has undergone a profound thematic renewal anchoring new fields of studies. This has been marked by the emergence of new fields as well as a renewed interest in repositioning the problem that underlie the entire course of history not only in Cameroon but everywhere in the world. All of this has brought about the wider employment of an interdisciplinary approach which has broken and...

Author(s):Jean GORMO

THE NILE IN BYZANTINE WRITINGS TILL THE SEVENTH CENTURY

Article in Press

The Nile attracted the interest of writers as early as the ancient times, such as Herodotus, Strabo, Pliny the Elder, and Dio Cassius. In our journey to the Byzantine Era, the Nile was mentioned by numerous literary and historical writings during the period between the Fourth and Seventh Centuries such as Aelius Spartianus, Eusebius of Caesarea, Ammianus Marcellinus, Claudius Claudianus, Nonnos of Panopolis, Dioscorus of...

Author(s):MUHAMMED ZAYED

The Politics of Researching Africa: Sitting on Western Anthropologists by African Anthropologists”

Article in Press

This article discusses the validity and usage of a highly ethnographic historical oral data, with reference to some of the literal criticisms by African anthropologists on some of the recent historical and anthropological literatures by Western scholars. Specifically, the paper analyzes the Igbo ‘women’s war’ or “Aba riots” from the South-eastern part of Colonial Nigeria in 1929 through the critical reviews of African...

Author(s): Christopher Appiah-Thompson

IGBO- MIGRANT COMMUNITY ENTERPRISE IN KATSINA METROPOLIS AND KATSINAWA REACTIONS TO THEIR EXPLOITATION, 1929 – 2011

Article in Press

This study examines Igbo- migrant community enterprise in Katsina metropolis and Katsinawa (Katsina indigenes) reactions to their exploitation, 1929 – 2011. Historically, Igbo are one of the largest ethnic group in Nigeria, who had achieved a high level of economic integration in the colonial and post-colonial period. In this study, an attempt was made to identify the factors responsible for the success of Igbo-migrant...

Author(s):Samuel Wycliff

THE ROLE OF DANCE IN THE MORAL DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN.

Article in Press

Society and at times parents, have wrong interpretation of the communicative value of dance as a didactic tool in a child’s moral development. To them, dance is just a mere form of entertainment, relaxation or means of keeping fitness until proven otherwise. This misconception is what this paper sets out to redress objectively, by making parents or the society at large to understand that every dance movement, be it...

Author(s): NICHOLAS CHIELOTAM

Facts about Onion and Garlic (Allium sp) in Ancient Egypt and the present time

Article in Press

Due to the lack of adequate information about the biological activities and active ingredients of these plants, tThe current work aims to illustrate the benfitsbenefits and importance of some Allium sp (especially Garlic and onion)appeared during the ancient Egypt periodespecially Garlic and onion. due to its importance and lack for some information related to these plants. The ancient Egyptians grew a wide variety of...

Author(s):Ghada M. Azzam

The Tutsi And The Igbo: A Nexus of Genocide In Rwanda And Nigeria, 1959 – 1994

Article in Press

In recent times, a debate of sorts appears to be raging as to what actually constitutes genocide. Is it the actual deliberated decimation of an identified and distinct national, racial, ethnic or cultural stock, or an attempted exercise in that direction? Within the general period of this analysis one may be tempted to argue that a scenario of genocide played out in the two African countries in focus here. Our intention...

Author(s):S. I. Okoro,

THE SOCIAL CHALLENGES OF THE POTTERS AND TANNERS AMONG THE YEM PEOPLE OF SOUTH–WEST ETHIOPIA

Article in Press

This paper focuses on the social challenges of the potters and tanners among the Yem people of South –west Ethiopia. In order to reconstruct this article the author has examined both primary sources and secondary sources. The author has also visited Yem special district, which the fuga people inhabit, twice in 2013 and 2015. Therefore, in addition to primary and secondary sources author’s personal observation is also...

Author(s):Yimer Nigusu Adem

A History of Quttoo Traditional Practice among the Guji Oromo; the Case of Bule Hora District, West Guji zone, Southern Ethiopia

Article in Press

The major goal of this study was to reconstruct the history quttoo tradition of the Guji Oromo. To achieve this goal, an attempt was made to collect authentic data sources from local elders, women and youths orally. The written documents which have relation with the study also examined and cross checked. The Guji people exercises different traditional practices which are set in the Guji customary laws. Quttoo is an...

Author(s):Dagm Alemayehu

The German policy of space and friendship in Southwest Africa (Namibia) and ist consequences since 1884: A postcolonial understanding

Article in Press

This paper examines an example of the German policy of space and friendship following the signing of asymmetric contracts from South West Africa (now Namibia), and how they created a so-called "reserve." The context of such colonial space politics must first be reconstructed. The conquest of this African region is inscribed in the space politics of the German Second Empire, which wanted to have his "place in the sun." This...

Author(s): Pierre Kodjio Nenguié,

RELEVANCE OF ORAL HISTORY TO STATE CREATION AND COMMUNITY LIFE IN THE YORUBA SPEAKING AREAS OF NIGERIA BETWEEN THE 18TH AND 20TH CENTURIES: AN EVALUATION.

Article in Press

Nigeria comprises of about three hundred and fifty dialectal ethnic groups which are living side by side from time immemorial. The Yoruba ethnic groups which further consisted of Akoko, Awori, Egba, Egun, Ekiti, Ijebu, Ikale, Ondo, Owo, and Oyo dialectical divisions are found in the western zone of Nigeria. The history of origin of each of the dialectal groups basically depended on oral history since many of the members of...

Author(s):JAYEOLA-OMOYENI, M.S

IGALA KINSHIP SYSTEMS: ITS PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION AND IMPACT ON THEIR CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY

Article in Press

It is held in many societies in Africa that fascinating appearances that are attractive and beautiful have some strong background that tend to influence the people and also force their way through the daily life of the people. Similarly, the African’s closely knit family relationship that seems to be highly respected and reputed have their foundations that determine their activities. The paper seeks to discuss how the...

Author(s):JOHN IGBOGO

JUSTICE SYSTEM AND SOCIAL CHANGE AMONG THE ESAN PEOPLE OF EDO STATE, NIGERIA

Article in Press

The study, ‘Justice System and Social Change among the Esan People of Edo State, Nigeria,’ is set to examine the nature, structure and processes of the Esan system of jurisprudence within the socio-political and cultural context of the traditional society. The paper postulates that increased reliance on the indigenous Esan system of justice in checkmating crimes and other related offences would go a long way to restore the...

Author(s): Enato, Lucky Success Ehimeme

Energizing Communities through Popular Music for Sub Cultural Group Identity: Inferences from Selected Musical Tracks of Chief Ebenezer Obey

Article in Press

Popular music in Nigeria is intended for the purpose of entertainment, counselling and reformation. Over the years now, this purpose has changed to other functional variables. In particular, popular music in Nigeria is now used as a tool for cultural identification and behavioural values. This paper evaluates selected songs of Chief Ebenezer Obey and reflects on the power of music to energize the emotional instincts of...

Author(s):ADEKOGBE, Olatunbosun Samuel

Codification of African customary marriage into statutory marriage law in Zimbabwe, 1890-1964: At what point should an African couple be considered married?

Article in Press

The article is about the codification of African marriage into statutory marriage law in colonial Zimbabwe. The process resulted in less anticipated and not-yet resolved social and moral dilemmas that have ever since confronted African couples at marriage due to the co-existence of African traditional marriage practice and the imposed European tradition of civil marriage. A new paradigm which integrates the two systems is...

Author(s):Ngundu Onesimus A.

The University and Universality of Youth Counter-Culture in Determining Life after Graduation: An Assessment

Article in Press

While schools are primarily concerned with academic problems of world-wide interest, they have also the responsibility of promoting the culture, customs and traditions of the community in which they are situated. The preservation, protection and the development of these traditions is the main function of the schools that are set aside for the drilling of our children from primary to the tertiary or higher level of...

Author(s):Nadir A. Nasidi

COMMUNITY BASED TOURISM DEVELOPMENT;AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO EMPOWERMENT: CASE ANALYSIS OF BADOLI TEMPLES, RAJASTHAN- INDIA

Article in Press

There is enormous scope for the tourism industry to contribute better to less poverty in the world. It suggests how both the tourism industry and the poor can benefit from an integrated approach to growth and equity. It is still not widely recognized that travel and tourism is one of the world’s biggest industries that creates vast economic growth, especially for poor countries. Tourism could bring benefits to host...

Author(s):Surabhi Srivastava

The Kintu myth and the construction of ethno-political identities in Uganda

Article in Press

On the surface, the founding myth of the Baganda people is simple and entertaining. Kintu, the founding father, initially lived alone on earth. He later married a girl (Nambi) from heaven, and together they populated the land called Buganda, where their descendants continue to live today. Many scholars treat this narrative with condescension and levity, and some even consign it to the inconsequential realms of fantasy....

Author(s):Abasi Kiyimba

DEMOCRATIZATION AND NATION-BUILDING IN NIGERIA: AN

Article in Press

Nigeria came into being in 1914 following the British colonial authority's amalgamation of the Northern and Southern protectorates during which various ethnicities were living independently of each other. However, the activities leading up to the 1914 amalgamation predates this date. It would therefore not be out of place to say that the most enduring legacy of British colonialism is the geo-political entity known as...

Author(s):David D. Yongo

The So-called Seqed and Scientific cradle of the angle θ in ancient Egypt

Article in Press

Science is a matter of asking for information by specifying the difference between fact and opinion. Fact in a scientific context is a generally accepted reality, but still open to scientific inquiry, as opposed to an absolute truth, which is not a part of science. The hypotheses and theories are generally based on objective inferences, unlike opinions, which are generally based on subjective influences. Therefore and...

Author(s):Ayman Waziry

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