African Journal of
Agricultural Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Agric. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1991-637X
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJAR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 6574

Review

Biology and management of ber fruit fly, Carpomyia vesuviana Costa (Diptera: Tephritidae): A review

Karuppaiah Vadivelu
  • Karuppaiah Vadivelu
  • Central Institute for Arid Horticulture (ICAR), Bikaner, Rajasthan-334006, India.
  • Google Scholar


  •  Received: 30 September 2013
  •  Accepted: 21 March 2014
  •  Published: 17 April 2014

Abstract

Ber fruit fly, Carpomyia vesuviana Costa (Tephritidae: Diptera) is one of the notorious monophagous pests of ber in India, Pakistan and Middle East countries. The fly infest most of the Ziziphus species grown in the world and cause the damage internally and in serious case it causes severe yield loss up to 80% or even upto 100% damage. The external temperature, relative humidity and rainfall and soil moisture, soil temperature and soil depth are found to be critical factors for the activity and the adult fly emergence from soil. The favourable temperature for pupal development and adult emergence is 30°C, pupation at 3 to 6 cm depth of soil was ideal for adult emergence. Alternating rainfall ranging from 20 to 40 mm and 62 to 85% relative humidity also promotes fly activity. Prophylactic measures are the essential components for the successful management of C. vesuviana. Field sanitation, destruction of wild bushes, collection of infested fruits and summer ploughing to expose the overwintering pupa to hot summer breaks the reproduction cycle of fly. Growing of resistant cultivars like Tikidi, Umran, Mundia, Banarasi, Sanaur-1, Safeda selection, Illaiciihi, Mirchia, Zg-3 and Chhuhara would give better yield and also reduces the protection cost. However, synthetic chemicals are presently employed as major tools against fruit fly, organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides are in extensive use. Availability of potential biocontrol agents and botanic pesticides are very limited. Therefore, it is necessary to incorporate the all available tactics in integrated manner and incorporation of neem based formulations and biological pesticide, spinosad, bait application, male annihilation technique are essential to manage the C. vesuviana in a successful manner in the scenario of organic cultivation.

 

Key words: Ziziphus sp., Carpomyia vesuviana, bio-ecology, integrated pest management (IPM).