African Journal of
Agricultural Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Agric. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1991-637X
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJAR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 6638

Full Length Research Paper

Effect of powder and extract of Ritchiea reflexa (Thonn.) Gilg et Benedict and Ctenium elegans Kunth on Amitermes evuncifer Blattodea, Termitinae

Kodjo ADANDE
  • Kodjo ADANDE
  • Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et des Substances Naturelles, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Lomé, 01 BP 1515 Lomé 01, Lomé, Togo.
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Oudjaniyobi SIMALOU
  • Oudjaniyobi SIMALOU
  • Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et des Substances Naturelles, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Lomé, 01 BP 1515 Lomé 01, Lomé, Togo.
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Boris Dodji KASSENEY
  • Boris Dodji KASSENEY
  • Département de Zoologie, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Lomé, 01 BP 1515 Lomé 01, Lomé, Togo.
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Eyabana MOLLONG
  • Eyabana MOLLONG
  • Département de Zoologie, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Lomé, 01 BP 1515 Lomé 01, Lomé, Togo.
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  •  Received: 23 October 2020
  •  Accepted: 31 March 2021
  •  Published: 30 April 2021

Abstract

Termites play key roles in the ecosystems functioning, especially in the recycling of organic matter. However, few are considered pests because they cause damages to crops and wooden structures. Long based on the use of synthetic pesticides, the control of pestiferous termites is now focused on environmental friendly means including the use of plant extracts. Here, powder, acetonic and ethanolic extracts of Ctenium elegans and Ritchiea reflexa were tested against Amitermes evuncifer. The phytochemical study on extracts exhibited tannins and terpenoids in both species, and steroids only in the ethanolic extract of R. reflexa. Five concentrations of each formulation were used against two controls (negative and positive). Six replicates were made for each concentration using 25 (for extracts) and 30 (for powder) healthy termite workers in petri dishes. All concentrations reduced the survival duration and life expectancy of termites. In 1.83±0.41 days, the higher concentration (6 mg/cm2) of R. reflexa ethanolic extract killed all termites against 6.67±1.63, and 8.67±0.52 days for the same concentration of acetonic extract and powder, respectively. On the other hand, it took 11.17±2.64; 5.5±0.55, and 5.33±0.52 days, for powder, ethanolic and acetone extracts of C. elegans to kill all the tested termites, respectively. The results suggested the use of these formulations as a botanical insecticide in termite management.

Key words: Amitermes evuncifer, biopesticides, Ctenium elegans, environment protection, Ritchiea reflexa.