African Journal of
Agricultural Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Agric. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1991-637X
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJAR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 6849

Full Length Research Paper

Enhancing social-ecological resilience through social learning: A case study of communal pasture management in the Highlands of Ethiopia

Lemlem Aregu
  • Lemlem Aregu
  • Centre for Development Research, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, and Policy, Economics and Social Science, World Fish, Yangon, Myanmar; Vienna, Austria.
  • Google Scholar
Ika Darnhofer
  • Ika Darnhofer
  • Department of Economics and Social Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
  • Google Scholar


  •  Received: 19 August 2015
  •  Accepted: 15 October 2015
  •  Published: 17 December 2015

References

Adger NW, Brown K, Nelson DR, Berkes F, Eakin H, Folke C, Galvin K, Gunderson L, Goulden M, O'Brien K, Ruitenbeek J, Tompkins EL (2011). Resilience implications of policy responses to climate change. WIREs Clim. Change 2:757-766.

 

Aregu L (2014). Resilience of communal grasslands in the Ethiopian highlands: Integrating gender and social learning. Dissertation thesis at the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria). 

 
 

Baland J, Platteau J (1999). The ambiguous impact of inequality on local resource management. World Dev. 27:773-788.
Crossref

 
 

Barrett G (2014). Deconstructing community. Sociol. Ruralis 55:182-204.
Crossref

 
 

Barton CM, Ullah I, Bergin SM, Mitasova H, Sarjoughian H (2012). Looking for the future in the past: long-term change in socioecological systems. Ecol. Modell. 241:42-53.
Crossref

 
 

Beer A (2014). Leadership and the governance of rural communities. J. Rural Stud. 34:254-262.
Crossref

 
 

Beilin R, Sysak T, Hill S (2012). Farmers and perverse outcomes: The quest for food and energy security, emissions reduction and climate adaptation. Global Environ. Chang. 22:463-471.
Crossref

 
 

Benin S, Pender J (2006). Collective action in community management of grazing land: the case of the highlands of Ethiopia. Environ. Dev. Econ. 11:127-149.
Crossref

 
 

Beratan K (2014). Summary: Addressing the interactional challenges of moving collaborative adaptive management from theory to practice. Ecol. Soc. 19(1):46.
Crossref

 
 

Berg BL (2009). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences. 7th Ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

 
 

Berkes F, Ross H (2013). Community resilience: towards an integrated approach. Soc. Nat. Resour. 26:5-20.
Crossref

 
 

Burkhard B, Fath BD, Müller F (2011). Adapting the adaptive cycle: Hypotheses on the development of ecosystem properties and services. Ecol. Modell. 222:2878-2890.
Crossref

 
 

Butzer KW (2012). Collapse, environment, and society. PNAS 109:3632-3639.
Crossref

 
 

Carpenter SR, Westley F, Turner G (2005). Surrogates for resilience of social-ecological systems. Ecosystems 8:941-944.
Crossref

 
 

Chapin F (2009). Managing ecosystems sustainably: the key role of resilience. In Chapin F, Kofinas G, Folke C, editors. Principle of ecosystem stewardship: Resilience-based natural resource management in a changing world. New York: Springer. pp. 29-53.
Crossref

 
 

Cleaver F (2002). Reinventing institutions: bricolage and the social embeddedness of natural resource management. Eur. J. Dev. Res. 14(2):11-30.
Crossref

 
 

Cleaver F (2012). Development through bricolage: rethinking institutions for natural resources management. New York: Routledge.

 
 

Cote M, Nightingale AJ (2012). Resilience thinking meets social theory: Situating social change in socio-ecological systems (SES) research. Prog. Hum. Geogr. 36:475-489.
Crossref

 
 

Crona B, Hubacek K (2010). The right connections: how do social networks lubricate the machinery of natural resource governance? Ecol. Soc. 15(4):18.

 
 

CSA (2012). Report on the agricultural sample survey. Addis Ababa: The Central Statistical Agency (CSA) of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia.

 
 

Darnhofer I (2014). Resilience and why it matters for farm management. Eur. J. Agric. Econ. 41:461-484.
Crossref

 
 

Davidson D (2010). The applicability of the concept of resilience to social systems: Some sources of optimism and nagging doubts. Soc. Nat. Resour. 23:1135-1149.
Crossref

 
 

Davies A (2009). Understanding local leadership in building the capacity of rural communities in Australia. Geogr. Res. 47:380-390.
Crossref

 
 

Davoudi S (2012). Resilience: A bridging concept or a dead end? Plan. Theory Pract. 13:299-307.
Crossref

 
 

Desta E (1995). Agricultural producers cooperatives: Some lesson of experience from Ethiopia. Geogr. J. 36:353-360.

 
 

EDRI (2005). Operational workshop on sustainable land management in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa: Ethiopian Development Research Institute.

 
 

Einstein W, Humphreys J (2001). Transforming leadership: matching diagnostics to leader behaviors. J. Leadersh. Organ. Stud. 8:48-61.
Crossref

 
 

Ekblom A (2012). Livelihood security, vulnerability and resilience: A Historical analysis of Chibuene, southern Mozambique. Ambio 41:479-489.
Crossref

 
 

Enfors E (2013). Social-ecological traps and transformations in dryland agro-ecosystems: using water system innovations to change the trajectory of development. Global Environ. Chang. 23:51-60.
Crossref

 
 

Fabricius C, Folke C, Cundill G, Schultz L (2007). powerless spectators, coping actors, and adaptive co-managers: A synthesis of the role of communities in ecosystem management. Ecol. Soc. 12(1):29.

 
 

Flyvbjerg B (2006). Five misunderstandings about case-study research. Qual. Inq. 12:219-245.
Crossref

 
 

Folke C, Carpenter S, Elmqvist T, Gunderson L, Holling CS, Walker B (2002). Resilience and sustainable development: building adaptive capacity in a world of transformations. Ambio 31:437-440.
Crossref

 
 

Folke C, Carpenter S, Walker B, Scheffer M, Chapin T, Rockström J (2010). Resilience thinking: Integrating resilience, adaptability and transformability. Ecol. Soc. 15(4):20.

 
 

Folke C, Colding J, Berkes F (2003). Synthesis: building resilience and adaptive capacity in social-ecological systems. In: Berkes F, Colding J, Folke C (eds). Navigating social-ecological systems. Building resilience for complexity and change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 352-387.

 
 

Folke C, Hahn T, Olsson P, Norberg J (2005). Adaptive governance of social-ecological systems. Annu. Rev. Env. Resour. 30:441-473.
Crossref

 
 

Gebremedhin B, Pender J, Tesfay G (2004). Collective action for grazing land management in crop-livestock mixed systems in the highlands of northern Ethiopia. Agric. Syst. 82:273-290.
Crossref

 
 

Gelcich S, Hughes TP, Olsson P, Folke C, Defeo O, Fernández M, et al. (2010). Navigating transformations in governance of Chilean marine coastal resources. PNAS 197:16794-16799.
Crossref

 
 

Green O, Cosens B, Garmestani A (2013). Resilience in transboundary water governance: the Okavango River Basin. Ecol. Soc. 18(2):23.
Crossref

 
 

Greig L, Marmorek D, Murray C, Robinson D (2013). Insight into enabling adaptive management. Ecol. Soc. 18(3):24.
Crossref

 
 

Gunderson L, Carpenter S, Folke C, Olsson P, Peterson G (2006). Water RATs (resilience, adaptability, and transformability) in lake and wetland social-ecological systems. Ecol. Soc. 11(1):16.

 
 

Gutiérrez N, Hilborn R, Defeo O (2011). Leadership, social capital and incentives promote successful fisheries. Nature 470(7334):386-389.
Crossref

 
 

Hoben A (1973). Land tenure among the Amhara of Ethiopia: The dynamics of cognatic descent. Chicago: The university of Chicago Press.

 
 

Hoben A (1995). Paradigm and politics: The cultural construction of environment policy in Ethiopia. World Dev. 23:1007-1021.
Crossref

 
 

Holling CS (2001). Understanding the complexity of economic, ecological, and social systems. Ecosystems 4:390-405.
Crossref

 
 

HRW (1991). Evil days: 30 years war and famine in Ethiopia. New York: Human Rights Watch. Available at: 

View

 
 

Janssen M, Bousquet F, Ostrom E (2011). A multimethod approach to study the governance of social-ecological systems. Natures Sciences Sociétés Special Issue 'Le champ des commons en question: perspectives croisées': iv-xvi.

 
 

Kenward RE, Whittingham MJ, Arampatzis S, Manos BC, Hahn T, Simoncini R, Alcornh J, Bastiani O, Donlanj M, Elowek K, Franzénl F, Karacsonyim Z, Larssone M, Manoud D, Navodarun I, Papadopoulouc O, Papathanasioud J, von Raggambyo A, Sharpp RJA, Söderqvistl T, Soutukorval A, Vavrovaq L, Aebischerr NJ, Leader-Williamss N, Rutzt C (2011). Identifying governance strategies that effectively support ecosystem services, resource sustainability, and biodiversity. PNAS 108:5308-12.
Crossref

 
 

Kilelu CW, Klerkx L, Leeuwis C (2013). Unraveling the role of innovation platforms in supporting co-evolution of innovation: Contributions and tensions in a smallholder dairy development programme. Agric. Syst. 118:65-77.
Crossref

 
 

Lanckriet S, Derudder B, Naudts J, Bauer H, Deckers J, Haile M, Nyssen J (2015). A political ecology perspective of land degradation in the north Ethiopian highlands. Land Degrad. Dev. 26:521-530.
Crossref

 
 

Lemenih M, Kassa H (2014). Re-greening Ethiopia: history, challenges and lessons. Forests 5:1896-1909.
Crossref

 
 

Magis K (2010). Community resilience: an indicator of social sustainability. Soc. Nat. Resour. 23:401-416.
Crossref

 
 

Matarrita-Cascante D, Trejos B (2013). Community resilience in resource-dependent communities: a comparative case study. Environ. Plann. A. 45:1387-1402.
Crossref

 
 

McSweeney K, Coomes OT (2011). Climate-related disaster opens a window of opportunity for rural poor in northeastern Honduras. PNAS 108:5203-5208.
Crossref

 
 

Monroe M, Plate R, Oxarart A (2013) Intermediate collaborative adaptive management strategies build stakeholder capacity. Ecol. Soc. 18(2):24.
Crossref

 
 

Moore ML, Tjornbo O, Enfors E, Knapp C, Hodbod J, Baggio J, Norström A, Olsson P, Biggs D (2014). Studying the complexity of change: toward an analytical framework for understanding deliberate social-ecological transformations. Ecol. Soc. 19(4):54.
Crossref

 
 

Nega B, Adenew B, Gebre Sellasie S (2003). Current land policy issues in Ethiopia. In: Groppo P, editor. Land Reform: Land settlement and cooperatives. Rome: FAO. pp. 103-124.

 
 

Olsson P, Folke C, Berkes F (2004a). Adaptive comanagement for building resilience in social-ecological systems. Environ. Manage. 34:75-90. doi: 10.1007/s00267-003-0101-7
Crossref

 
 

Olsson P, Folke C, Galaz V, Hahn T, Schultz L (2007). Enhancing the fit through adaptive co-management: creating and maintaining bridging functions for matching scales in the Kristianstads Vattenrike Biosphere Reserve Sweden. Ecol. Soc. 12(1):28.

 
 

Olsson P, Folke C, Hahn T (2004b). Social-ecological transformation for ecosystem management: the development of adaptive co-management of a wetland landscape in southern Sweden. Ecol. Soc. 9(4):2. Available: 

View

 
 

Olsson P, Gunderson L, Carpenter S, Ryan P, Lebel L, Folke C, Holling CS (2006). Shooting the rapids: navigating transitions to adaptive governance of social-ecological systems. Ecol. Soc. 11(1):18.

 
 

Ostrom E (1990). Governing the commons: The evolution of institutions for collective action. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Crossref

 
 

Ostrom E (2010). Beyond markets and states : polycentric governance of complex economic systems. Am. Econ. Rev. 100:641-672.
Crossref

 
 

Pahl-Wostl C, Craps M, Dewulf A, Mostert E, Tabara D, Taillieu T (2007). Social learning and water resources management. Ecol. Soc. 12(2):5.
Crossref

 
 

Pankhurst A (2003). Conflict management over contested natural resources: A case study of pasture, forest and irrigation in South Wello, Ethiopia. In: Castro P, Nielsen E, editors. Natural resource conflict management case studies: An analysis of power, participation and protected areas. Rome: FAO. pp. 59-80.

 
 

Pender J, Ehui S (2006). Summary of workshop papers and discussion. In: Jabbar M, Pender J, Ehui S, Street K., editors. Policies for sustainable land management in the highlands of Ethiopia. EPTD Workshop Summary. pp. 1-16.

 
 

Planel S (2014). A view of a bureaucratic developmental state: local governance and agricultural extension in rural Ethiopia. J. East. Afr. Stud. 8:420-437.
Crossref

 
 

Prior T, Eriksen C (2013). Wildfire preparedness, community cohesion and social-ecological systems. Global Environ. Chang. 23:1575-1586.
Crossref

 
 

Reed MS, Evely AC, Cundill G, Fazey I, Glass J, Laing A, Newig J, Parrish B, Prell C, Raymond C, Stringer LC (2010). What is social learning ? Ecol. Soc. 15(4):r1.

 
 

Röling NG, Wagemakers MA (1998). Facilitating sustainable agriculture: participatory learning and adaptive management in times of environmental uncertainty. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

 
 

Ross H, Berkes F (2014). Research approaches for understanding, enhancing and monitoring community resilience. Soc. Nat. Resour. 27:787-804.
Crossref

 
 

Rotanrangi SJ, Stephenson J (2014). Resilience pivots: stability and identity in a social-ecological-cultural system. Ecol. Soc. 19(1):28.
Crossref

 
 

Scarlett L (2013). Collaborative adaptive management: Challenges and opportunities. Ecol. Soc. 18(3):26.
Crossref

 
 

Segers K, Dessein J, Hagberg S, Develtere P, Haile M, Deckers J (2009). Be like bees - The politics of mobilizing farmers for development in Tigray, Ethiopia. Afr. Affairs 108(430):91-109.
Crossref

 
 

Stephenson M (2010). Considering the relationships among social conflict, social imaginaries, resilience, and community-based organization leadership. Ecol. Soc. 16(1):34.

 
 

Stern M, Coleman K (2015). The multidimensionality of trust: Applications in collaborative natural resource management. Soc. Nat. Resour. 28:117-132.
Crossref

 
 

Tainter JA, Taylor TG (2014). Complexity, problem-solving, sustainability and resilience. Build. Res. Inform. 42:168-181.
Crossref

 
 

Tareke G (2004). From Af Abet to Shire: the defeat and demise of Ethiopia's 'Red' Army 1988-89. J. Mod. Afr. Stud. 42:239-281.

 
 

Tilahun H, Schmidt E (2013). Spatial analysis of livestock production patterns in Ethiopia. ESSP II Working Paper 44. Addis Ababa: IFPRI.

 
 

van der Leeuw S (2012). For every solution there are many problems: the role and study of technical systems in socio-environmental coevolution. Geogr. Tidsskr. 112:105-116. 
Crossref

 
 

van der Leeuw S, Costanza R, Aulenbach S, Brewer S, Burek M, Cornell S, Crumley C, Dearing JA, Downy C, Graumlich LJ, Heckbert S, Hegmon M, Hibbard K, Jackson ST, Kubiszewski I, Sinclair P, Sörlin S, Steffen W (2011). Toward an integrated history to guide the future. Ecol. Soc. 16(4):2. 
Crossref

 
 

van der Leeuw S, Redman CL (2002). Placing archaeology at the center of socio-natural studies. Am. Antiq. 67:597-605.
Crossref

 
 

Walker B, Abel N, Anderies J, Ryan P (2009). Resilience, adaptability, and transformability in the Goulburn-Broken Catchment, Australia. Ecol. Soc. 14(1):12.

 
 

Walker B, Carpenter S, Anderies J, Abel N, Cumming G, Janssen M,

 
 

Lebel L, Norberg J, Peterson GD, Pritchard R (2002). Resilience management in social-ecological systems : a working hypothesis for a participatory approach. Conserv. Ecol. 6(1):14.

 
 

Walker B, Holling CS, Carpenter S, Kinzig A (2004). Resilience, adaptability and transformability in social-ecological systems. Ecol. Soc. 9(2):5.

 
 

Woolcock M, Szreter S, Rao V (2011). How and why does history matter for development policy? J. Dev. Stud. 47:70-96. Yin R (2003). Case study research. Applied Social Research Methods Series Vol. 3, Thousand Oaks: Sage.

 
 

Young OR (2010). Institutional dynamics: resilience, vulnerability and adaptation in environmental and resource regimes. Global Environ. Chang. 20:378-385.
Crossref