African Journal of
Agricultural Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Agric. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1991-637X
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJAR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 6638

Full Length Research Paper

Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae): State of knowledge and control methods

Abissi Marc ADJAOKE
  • Abissi Marc ADJAOKE
  • Ecole Doctorale des Sciences Agronomiques et de l’EAU (EDSAE), Université Nationale d’Agriculture (UNA), BP 43, Kétou, Benin.
  • Google Scholar
Appolinaire ADANDONON
  • Appolinaire ADANDONON
  • Laboratoire des Sciences Végétales Horticoles et Forestières, Ecole de Gestion et de Production Végétale et Semencière (EGPVS), Université Nationale d’Agriculture (UNA), BP 43, Kétou, Benin.
  • Google Scholar
Ghislain TEPA YOTTO
  • Ghislain TEPA YOTTO
  • Laboratoire des Sciences Végétales Horticoles et Forestières, Ecole de Gestion et de Production Végétale et Semencière (EGPVS), Université Nationale d’Agriculture (UNA), BP 43, Kétou, Benin.
  • Google Scholar


  •  Received: 11 June 2021
  •  Accepted: 03 August 2021
  •  Published: 30 September 2021

References

Alves DS, Carvalho GA, Oliveira DF, Sâmia RR, Villas-Boas MA (2012). Toxicity of copaiba extracts to armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda). African Journal of Biotechnology 11(24):6578-6591.
Crossref

 

Andaló V, Santos V, Moreira GF, Moreira CC, Junior AM (2010). Evaluation of entomopathogenic nematodes under laboratory and greenhouses conditions for the control of Spodoptera frugiperda. Ciência Rural, Santa Maria 40(9):1860-1866.
Crossref

 
 

Ashley TR (1979). Fall Armyworm Symposium: Classification and Distribution of Fall Armyworm Parasites. Florida Entomologist 62(2):114-123.
Crossref

 
 

Ashley TR (1986). Geographical distributions and parasitization levels for parasitoids of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. Florida Entomologist 69(3):516-524.
Crossref

 
 

Ashley TR, Waddill VH, Mitchell ER, Rye J (1982). Impact of native parasites of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), in South Florida and release of the exotic parasite, Eiphosomavitticole (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Environmental Entomology 11(4):833-837.
Crossref

 
 

Asi MR, Bashir MH, Afzal M, Zia K, Akram M (2013). Potential of entomopathogenic fungi for biocontrol of Spodoptera litura fabricius (lepidoptera: noctuidae). The Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 23(3):913-918.

 
 

Barfield S, Ashley TR (1987). Effects of Corn Phenology and Temperature on the Life Cycle of the Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The Florida Entomologist 70(1):110-116.
Crossref

 
 

Baudron F, Zamah-Allah M, Chaipa I, Chari N, Chinwada P (2019). Understanding the factors influencing fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith) damage in African smallholder maize fields and quantifying its impact on yield. A case study in Eastern Zimbabwe. Crop Protection 120:141-150
Crossref

 
 

Berretta MF, Rios ML, Sciocco de Cap A (1998). Characterization of a Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus of Spodoptera frugiperda from Argentina. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 71(3):280-282.
Crossref

 
 

Beserra EB, Dias CTDS, Parra JRP (2002). Distribution and natural parasitism of Spodoptera frugiperda (lepidoptera: noctuidae) eggs at different phenological stages of corn. Florida Entomologist 85(4):588-593.
Crossref

 
 

Bokonon-Ganta A, Bernal JS, Pietrantonio PV, Sétamou M (2003). Survivorship and development of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), on conventional and transgenic maize cultivars expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Cry9C and Cry1A(b) endotoxins. International Journal of Pest Management 49(2):169-175.
Crossref

 
 

Botha AS, Erasmus A, du Plessis H, Van den Berg J (2019). Efficacy of Bt Maize for Control of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in South Africa. Journal of Economic Entomology 112(3):1260-1266. 
Crossref

 
 

Busato GR, Grützmacher AD, Garcia MS, Giolo FP, Zotti MJ, Stefanello Júnior JJ (2005). Biologia Comparada de Populações de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) em Folhas de Milho e Arroz. Neotropical Entomology 34(5):743-750.
Crossref

 
 

CABI (2019). Invasive Species Compendium Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm). Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide https://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/29810 consulté le 4 janvier 2021 à 12h50'

 
 

Campos-Herrera R, Gutierrez C (2008). Screening Spanish isolates of steinernematid nematodes for use as biological control agents through laboratory and greenhouse microcosm studies. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 100(2):100-105.
Crossref

 
 

Capinera JL (2001). Handbook of Vegetable Pests. Academic Press, San Diego 729 p.

 
 

Capinera JL (2014). Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Florida (FL): US Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida; [accessed 2017Sept 05]. https://journals.flvc.org

 
 

Carneiro TR, Fernandes OA (2012). Interspecific interaction betweenTelenomus remus (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) and Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) eggs. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 84(4):1127-1135.
Crossref

 
 

Castillejos V, Trujillo J, Ortega LD, Santizo JA (2002). Granular phagostimulant nucleopolyhedrovirus formulations for control of Spodoptera frugiperda in maize. Biological Control 24(3):300-310.
Crossref

 
 

Castoreña V, Magdalena M, Valencia C, Alonso E (2004). Determination of larval stages of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) for the construction of a prediction model. Folia Entomológica Mexicana 43:307-312 Sociedad Mexicana de Entomología, A.C. Xalapa, Mexico

 
 

Cave RD (2000). Biology, ecology and use in pest management of Telenomusremu. BiocontrolNews and Information 21(1):21N-26N.

 
 

Charleston DS, Kfir R, Dicke M, Vet LEM (2005). Impact of botanical pesticides derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica on the biology of two parasitoid species of the diamondback moth. Biological Control 33(2):131-142.
Crossref

 
 

Thierfelder C, Niassy S, Midega C, Sevgan S, van den Berg J, Prasanna BM, Baudron F, Harrison R, (2018). Low-Cost Agronomic practices and Landscape Management Approches to Control FAW.CIMMYT, Mexico CDMX (2018), pp. 89-96.

 
 

Cock JWM, Beseh PK, Buddie AG, Cafa G, Crozier J (2017). Molecular methods to detect Spodoptera frugiperda in Ghana, and implications for monitoring the spread of invasive species in developing countries. Scientific Reports 7:4103 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-04238-y 10.
Crossref

 
 

Cokola MC (2018). Monitoring, molecular characterization and biological control of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Master of specialization in integrated production and preservation of natural resources in urban and peri-urban environment, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech (GxABT), P 93. CURI/URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2268.2/8077

 
 

Da Sylva ACB, Sardi JO, de Oliveira DGL, de Oliveira CFR, dos Santos HF, dos Santos EL (2016). Development of a novel anti-biofilm peptide derived from profilin of Spodoptera frugiperda. Biofouling 36(5):516-527.
Crossref

 
 

Dangal V, Huang F (2015). Costs of Cry1F resistance in two populations of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), collected from Puerto Rico and Florida. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 127:81-86.
Crossref

 
 

Davis FM, Seong NG, Williams WP (1992). Visual rating scales for screening whorl-stage corn for resistance to fall armyworms. Technical bulletin (Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station) 186:1-9.

 
 

Day R, Abrahams P, Phil A, Bateman M, Beale T, Clottey V, Cock M, Colmenarez Y, Corniani N, Early R, Godwin J, Gomez J, Moreno PG, Murphy ST, Oppong-Mensah B, Phiri N, Pratt C, Silvestri S, Witt A (2017). Fall Armyworm: Impacts and Implications for Africa. Outlooks on Pest Management 28(5):196-201.
Crossref

 
 

Du Plessis H, Schlemmer ML, Van den Berg J (2020). The Effect of Temperature on the Development of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Insects 11(4):228.
Crossref

 
 

Dutra CC, Koch RL, Burkness EC, Meissle M, Romeis J, Hutchison WD, Fernandes MG (2012). Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Exhibits No Preference between Bt and Non Bt Maize Fed Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). PLoS One 7(9):e44867. 
Crossref

 
 

Ekpa O, Palacios-Rojas N, Kruseman G, Fogliano V, Linnemann AR (2018). Sub-Saharan African maize-based foods:Technological perspectives to increase the food and nutrition security impacts of maize breeding programs. Global Food Security 17:48-56. 
Crossref

 
 

Fan J, Wu P, Tian T, Ren Q, Haseeb M, Zang R (2020). Potential Distribution and Niche Diferentiation of Spodoptera frugiperda in Africa. Insects 11(6):383. 
Crossref

 
 

Farias JR, Andow DA., Horikoshi RJ, Sorgatto RJ, dos Santos AC, Omoto C (2014). Field-evolved resistance to Cry1F maize by Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Brazil. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2014.06.019
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2014.06.019

 
 

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (2018). Integrated management of the fall armyworm on maize: a guide for farmer field schools in Africa 118 p

 
 

Gardner WA, Fuxa JR (1980). Pathogens for the Suppression of the Fall Armyworm 
Crossref

 
 

Gichuhi J, Sevgan S, Khamis F, Van den Berg J, du Plessis H, Ekesi S, Herren JK (2020). Diversity of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda and their gut bacterial community in Kenya. PeerJ 8:e8701 
Crossref

 
 

Goergen G, Kumar PL, Sankung SB, Togola A, Tamò M (2016). First Report of Outbreaks of the Fall Armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), a New Alien Invasive Pest in West and Central Africa. PLoS One 11(10):e0165632. doi:10.1371/journal. pone.0165632
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0165632

 
 

Gutiérrez-Martínez A, Tolon-Becerra A, Lastra-Bravo XB (2012). Biological control of spodoptera frugiperda eggs using Telenomus remus Nixon in maize-bean-squash polyculture. American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences 7(3)285-292
Crossref

 
 

Hajek AE, Leger RJ (1994). Interactions between fungal pathogens and insect hosts. Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, Ithaca, New York pp. 14853-1801.

 
 

Hardke JT, Gus M Lorenz GM, Rogers Leonard B (2015). Fall Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Ecology in Southeastern Cotton. Journal of Integrated Pest Management 6(1):10, 
Crossref

 
 

Hay-Roe MM, Meagher RL, Nagoshi RN, Newman Y (2016). Distributional patterns of fall armyworm parasitoids in a corn field and a pasture field in Florida. 
Crossref

 
 

Hoballah ME (2004). Occurrence and direct control potential of parasitoids and predators of the fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on maize in the subtropical lowlands of Mexico. 
Crossref

 
 

Hogg DB, Pitre HN, Anderson RE (1982). Assessment of Early-Season Phenology of the Fall Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Mississippi. Environmental Entomology 11(3):705-710. 
Crossref

 
 

Houngbo S, Zannou A, Aoudji A, Sossou HC, Sinzogan A, Sikirou R, Zossou E, Vodounon HST, Adomou A, Ahanchédé A (2020). Farmers' Knowledge and Management Practices of Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) in Benin, West Africa. Agriculture 10(10):43. 
Crossref

 
 

Hruska AJ, Gould F (1997). Fall Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Diatrae alineolata (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): Impact of Larval Population Level and Temporal Occurrence on Maize Yield in Nicaragua. Journal of Economic Entomology 90(2):611-622. https://sci- hub.se/
Crossref

 
 

Kaur A, Singh NN, Mukesh K (2009). Screening of insecticides against egg parasitoid Trichogramma brasiliensis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). Indian Journal of Entomology 71(3):244-248.

 
 

Kenis M, du Plessis H, Van den Berg J, Niango Ba M, Goergen G, Kwadjo KE, Baoua B, Tefera T, Buddie A, Cafà G, Offord L, Rwomushana I, Polaszek A (2019). Telenomus Remus, a Candidate Parasitoid for the Biological Control of Spodoptera Frugiperda in Africa, is already Present on the Continent. Insects 10(4):92. 
Crossref

 
 

Khan A, Ahmad W (2015). The Management of Spodopteran Pests Using Fungal Pathogens. Biocontrol of Lepidopteran Pests pp. 123-160.
Crossref

 
 

Kouakou M, Kobenan KC, Didi RJG, Bini KKN, Ochou Ochou G (2019). Detection of the Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) (Coleoptera: Noctuidae) and First Observations on its Biology in Côte d'Ivoire. European Scientific Journal April 2019 edition Vol.15, No.12 ISSN: 1857 -7881 (Print) e -ISSN 1857-566 7431. French

 
 

Kumbhar RA (2019). Current Status and Management of Fall Armyworm in India. Research Gate.

 
 

Kumela T, Simiyu J, Sisay B, Likhayo P, Mendesil E, Gohol L, Tefera T (2018). Farmers knowledge perceptions, and management practices of the new invasive pests, fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) in Ethiopia and kenya. January 2018 International Journal of Pest Management 65(1):1-9. 
Crossref

 
 

López MA, Martínez-Castillo AM, García-Gutiérrez C, Cortez-Mondaca E, Escobedo-Bonilla CM (2018). Parasitoids and Entomopathogens Associated with Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in Northern Sinaloa. Southwestern Entomologist 43(4):867-881. http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.3958/059.043.0405
Crossref

 
 

Luginbill P (1928). The Fall Armyworm. USDA Technical Bulletin N° 34. 91 p.

 
 

Barzman M, Bàrberi P, Birch ANE, Boonekamp P, Dachbrodt-Saaydeh S, Graf B, Hommel B, Jensen JE, Kiss J, Kudsk P, Lamichhane JR, Messéan A, Moonen AC, Ratnadass A, Ricci P, Sarah JL, Sattin M (2015). Eight principles of integrated pest management. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 35(4):1199-1215.
Crossref

 
 

Armenta R, Martinez AM, Chapman JW, Magallanes R, Goulson D, Caballero P, Cave RD, Cisneros J, Valle J, Castillejos V, Penagos DI (2003). Impact of a nucleopolyhedrovirus bioinsecticide and selected synthetic insecticides on the abundance of insect natural enemies on maize in southern Mexico. Journal of Economic Entomology 96(3):649-661. 
Crossref

 
 

McGrath D, Huesing J, Beiriger E, Nuessly RG, Tepa-Yotto TG, Hodson D, Kimathi E, Felege E, Abah Obaje J, Mulaa, M, Mendes AP (2018). Monitoring, Surveillance, and Scouting for Fall Armyworm, in: Prasanna, B.M., Huesing, J.E., Eddy, R., Peschke, V.M. (Eds.), Fall Armyworm in Africa: A Guide for Integrated Pest Management. Mexico, CDMX, 11-28.

 
 

Molina-Ochoa J, Carpenter JE, Einrichs EA, Foster JE (2003). Parasitoids and parasites of Spodoptera frugiperda (lepidoptera: noctuidae) in the americas and caribbean basin: an inventory. Florida Entomologist 86(3):22
Crossref

 
 

Moscardi F (1999). Assessment of the application of baculoviruses for control of lepidoptera. Annual Review of Entomology 44(1):257-289.
Crossref

 
 

Murúa MG, Molina-Ochoa J, Fidalgo P (2009). Natural distribution of parasitoids of larvae of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in Argentina. Journal of Insect Science 9(1):20. https://academic.oup.com/jinsectscience/article/9/1/20/891778?login=true
Crossref

 
 

Negrisoli CRCB, Negrisoli AS, Botton M, Garcia MS, Bernardi D (2013). Evaluation of efficacy of 18 strains of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida) against Planococcus citri (Risso, 1813) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) under laboratory conditions. Experimental Parasitology 134(3):295-298.
Crossref

 
 

Obopile M, Munthali DC, Matilo B (2008). Farmers' knowledge, perceptions and management of vegetable pests and diseases in Botswana. 
Crossref

 
 

Pasini A, Parra JRP, Lopes JM (2007). Dieta Artificial para Criação de Doru luteipes (Scudder) (Dermaptera: Forficulidae), Predator da Lagarta-do-Cartucho do Milho, 70 Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Neotropical Entomology 36(2):308-311.
Crossref

 
 

Perfecto I (1991). Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) as Natural Control Agents of Pests in Irrigated Maize in Nicaragua. Journal of Economic Entomology 84:65-70.
Crossref

 
 

Phambala K, Tembo Y, Kasambala T, Kabambe VH, Stevenson PC, Belmain SR (2020). Bioactivity of Common Pesticidal Plants on Fall Armyworm Larvae (Spodoptera frugiperda). Plants 9(1):112. 
Crossref

 
 

Polanczyk RA, Alves SB (2005). Biological parameters of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) assayed with Bacillus thuringiensis berliner. Scientia Agricola 62:464-468. 
Crossref

 
 

Prasanna BM, Huesing J, Eddy R, Virginia R (2019). Fall Armyworm in frica, A guide for integrated Pest Management. Mexico: USAID and CIMMYT. https://repository.cimmyt.org/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10883/19204/59133.pdf

 
 

Prasanna BM, Huesing JE, Eddy R, Peschke VM (2018). Fall armyworm in Africa: A guide to integrated pest management, First Edition.Mexico City, CDMX: CIMMYT. https://repository.cimmyt.org/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10883/19204/59133.pdf

 
 

Purwar JP, Sachan GC (2005). Synergistic effect of entomogenous fungi on some insecticides against Bihar hairy caterpillar Spilarctiaobliqua (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Microbiological Research 161(1):38-42.
Crossref

 
 

Romero-Arenas O, Rivera A, Aragon A, Parraguirre C, Cabrera E, Lopez F (2014). Mortality Evaluation of Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith) by using Metarhiziumanisopliae In vitro. Journal of Pure & Applied Microbiology 8(2):59-67

 
 

Rwomushana I, Bateman M, Beale T. Beseh P (2018). Fallarmyworm: impacts and implications for Africa: Evidence Note Update, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/328687643

 
 

Samson G, Popovic R (1988). Use of algal fluorescence for determination of phytotoxicity of heavy metals and pesticides as environmental pollutants. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 16(3):272-278. 
Crossref

 
 

Santos BA, Giustolin TA, Alvarenga CD, Sousa MDC (2012). Seleção de espécies vegetais com potencialinseticida para o controle de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). In: XXIV Congresso Brasileiro de Entomologia, Curitiba, PR. Anais P 23.

 
 

Schmidt-Durán A, Villalba-Velásquez V, Chacón-Cerdas R, Martínez K, Flores-Mora D (2015). Larval stage prediction model of Spodoptera frugiperda collected in fig (Ficus carica) and discovery of Apanteles sp. as its parasitoid. Tecnología en Marcha 28(1):47-58.
Crossref

 
 

Sellami S, Mesrati A, Tounsi S, Jamoussi K (2015). Toxicity, activation process, and histopathological effect of Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein Vip3Aa16 on Tutaabsoluta. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 175:1992-1999.
Crossref

 
 

Shapiro DI, Fuxa JR, Braymer HD, Pashley DP (1991). DNA restriction polymorphismin wild isolates of Spodoptera frugiperda nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 58(1):96-105.
Crossref

 
 

Kalleshwaraswamy CM, Maruthi MS, Pavithra HB (2018). Biology of invasive fall army worm Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on maize. Indian Journal of Entomology 80(3):540-543.
Crossref

 
 

Shylesha AN, Jalali SK, Gupta A, Varshney R, Venkatesan T, Shetty P, Ojha R, Ganiger PC, Navik O, Subaharan K, Bakthavatsalam N (2018). Studies on new invasive pest Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its natural enemies. Journal of Biological Control 32(3):145-51. 
Crossref

 
 

Silva RB, Cruz I, Zanuncio JC, Figueiredo MC, Zanuncio TV, Serrão JE (2013). Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) eggs as alternative food for rearing of lady beetles Eriopisconnexa (Germar) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Biological Control 64(2):101-105.
Crossref

 
 

Sisay B, Tefera T, Wakgari M, Mendesil E (2019). The Efficacy of Selected Synthetic Insecticides and Botanicals against Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in Maize. Insects 10(2):45. 
Crossref

 
 

Sree KS, Varma A (2015). Biocontrol of Lepidopteran Pests. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing 
Crossref

 
 

Straub RW, Hogan HJ (1974). Feasibility of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) control on late-planted dent corn. Food and Life Sciences Bulletin 49.

 
 

Tambo JA, Day RK, Lamontagne-Godwin J, Silvestri S, Beseh PK, Oppong-Mesah B, Phiri NA, Matimelo M (2020). Tackling fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) outbreak in Africa: an analysis of farmers' control actions. International Journal of Pest Management 66:4.
Crossref

 
 

Tavares W de S, Cruz I, Petacci F, Lourenc S, Júnior o de A, Tavaresa WS, Cruza I, Petacci F, Louren S¸ Júnior A, Freitas SS, Zanuncio JC, Serrão JE (2009). Potential use of Asteraceae extracts to control Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and selectivity to their parasitoids Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) and Telenomus remus (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae). Industrial Crops and Products 30(3):384-388.
Crossref

 
 

Tepa-Yotto GT, Tonnang HEZ, Goergen G, Subramanian S, Emily Kimathi E, Abdel-Rahman EM, Flo D, Thunes KH, Fiaboe KKM, Niassy S, Bruce A, Mohamed SA, Tamò M, Ekesi S, Sæthre MG (2021). Global Habitat Suitability of Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae): Key Parasitoids Considered for Its Biological Control. Insects 12(4):273.
Crossref

 
 

Togola A, Meseka S, Menkir A, Badu-Apraku B, Boukar O, Tamo M, Djouaka R (2018). Measurement of Pesticide Residues from ChemicalControl of the Invasive Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in a Maize Experimental Field in Mokwa, Nigeria. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15(5):849.
Crossref

 
 

Valdez-torres JB, Soto-Landeros F, Osuna-Enciso T, Baez-Sanudo MA (2012). Phenological prediction models for white corn (Zea mays L.) and fall armyworms (Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith). Agrociencia (Montecillo) 46(4):399-410.

 
 

Visser D (2017). Fall armyworm: an identification guide in relation to other common caterpillars, a South African perspective. Agricultural Research Council - Vegetable and Ornamental Plants. Identification guides 26 p.

 
 

Wraight SP, Ramos ME, Avery PB, Jaronski ST, Vandenberg JD (2010). Comparative virulence of Beauveria bassiana isolates against lepidopteran pests of vegetable crops. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 103(3):186-199 
Crossref