African Journal of
Agricultural Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Agric. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1991-637X
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJAR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 6562

Table of Content: May 2011; 6(10)

May 2011

The impact of HIV/AIDS on labor markets, productivity and welfare in Southern Africa: A critical review and analysis

  Global estimates of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic as of 2007 shows that about 33 million people are living with HIV, the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The international labor organization (ILO) estimates that at least 23 million workers in the prime labor force (aged15 to 49 years) are infected with HIV. More than 70% of the world’s HIV/AIDS infected...

Author(s):   Franklin Simtowe , Kazi Maruful Islam and Kinkingninhoun-Medagbe F. M.  

May 2011

Germination and growth performance of Aloe turkanensis and Aloe secundflora under different substrates

  Income generated from indigenous Aloe sap taping has been a source of livelihoods to most communities in drylands of Kenya. Most of the Aloe leaf harvesting takes place in the wild, threatening the natural Aloepopulations. This calls for establishment of Aloe plantations as alternative source of sustainable sap tapping.  Currently there is lack of information on propagation...

Author(s): K. W. Mukonyi, V. O. Oeba, R. Chiteva, J. Lelon and M. W. Gathara

May 2011

Productivity assessment of agricultural crops in existing agrihortisilvicultural system of mid hills of Central Western Himalaya, India

  The paper summarizes the productivity of various agricultural crops under existing agrihortisilviculture (AHS) system in northern and southern aspects of mid hills of Central Western Garhwal Himalaya (Narendra Nagar block of district Tehri Garhwal, Uttarakhand), India between 1000 to 2000 m asl during Rabi (winter) and Kharif (summer) seasons. The northern aspect was more diverse and formed good vegetation...

Author(s): Arvind Bijalwan

May 2011

Time study and productivity analysis of chainsaw mounted log debarker in southern pine forests of Turkey

  In timber harvesting process, the debarking activity time covers more than 50% of the totalproduction time especially for coniferous trees. The debarking operations are usually carried out by forest villagers with an axe because of the abundance of labor force and subvention applied for forest villagers. Recently, in the face of labor shortage, in...

Author(s): Mehmet Eker, H. OÄŸuz Çoban and H. Hulusi Acar

May 2011

Investigation of the structure and distribution diameter classes models in beech forests of Northern Iran

  The study of natural stands structures and investigation of the utilization facility from probable theories can be a suitable instrument for future natural stands planning. Anyway, the present study was conducted at beech stands of uneven-aged from the southern aspect of Dorfak at a height of 1200 m of sea level in number 21 of the watershed basin, Guilan province. Four sample plots with 1 ha of...

Author(s): Ali Reza Eslami, Bahman Karimi, Hamid Payam and Ome Kolsoom Derakhshan

May 2011

Heavily stocked 5-paddock rotational grazing effect on cross-bred Afrikaner steer performance and herbaceous vegetation dynamics in a semi-arid veld of Zimbabwe

  A ten-year high stocking rate trial, mimicking communal areas was initiated at Matopos Research Station, Zimbabwe. Afrikaner steer crosses grazed continuously or rotationally at a high stocking rate (0.4 LU.ha-1) in two 45 ha areas, with one fenced into five 9 ha camps each for the rotational grazing sites, with 30 animals per site. It was hypothesized that, heavily stocked rotation will not improve herbage...

Author(s):   Bethwell Moyo, Sikhalazo Dube, Charles Moyo and Edward Nesamvuni  

May 2011

Effect of mulch and irrigation practices on soil water, soil temperature and the grain yield of maize (Zea mays L) in Loess Plateau, China

  Agricultural management practices, such as mulching and irrigation can change the characteristics of the soil surface and hence influence the hydrothermal properties of the soil. A two-year field experiment was conducted at the Changwu agro-ecosystem research station to evaluate the effects of mulch and irrigation practices on moisture and temperature in the upper layers of...

Author(s): Liu Yi, Shen Yufang, Yang Shenjiao, Li Shiqing and Chen Fang

May 2011

Effects of alfalfa, corn and sunflower with date palm on decreasing soil pollution

  Uptake of pollutants by plants, and entering the food chain can cause different diseases for humans. There are different methods for refining contaminated soils. One low-cost method for refining contaminated soils is using phytoremediation that has lower cost, compatible with nature and require fewer facilities than the other methods of refining. Khuzestan province in Iran has oil wells that cause soil...

Author(s): Mohebi A. H. and Dialami H.

May 2011

Assessing the contribution of smallholder irrigation to household food security, in comparison to dryland farming in Vhembe district of Limpopo province, South Africa

  The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of irrigation to household food security, in comparison to dry-land farming. This study used both primary and secondary data to analyse the factors. The primary data was collected by using a pre-tested questionnaire administered to selected farmers in the study area. A probability sampling method (that is pure or simple random sampling technique) was used...

Author(s): Oni, S. A., Maliwichi, L. L. and Obadire, O. S.

May 2011

Bud banks of two perennial grasses: Composition, size, dynamics and contribution to population maintenance during the flooded restoration succession on the Songnen Meadow, China

  To describe the composition, size, temporal dynamics of bud banks of both perennial rhizomatous herbaceous Leymus chinensis and Carex duriuscula and to explore the contributions of bud banks to aboveground population persistence during the flooded restoration succession. Soil blocks 25 × 25 x 30 cm3 were sampled during two growing seasons from June to September. The total...

Author(s): Li Hai-yan and Yang Yun-fei

May 2011

Application of AquaCrop model in deficit irrigation management of Winter wheat in arid region

  Simulation models that clarify the effects of water on crop yield, are useful tools for improving farm-level water management and optimizing water use efficiency. The main purpose of deficit irrigation is high water productivity with less water supply to plants. In this research, the potential of AquaCrop model in deficit irrigation practice for winter wheat, the main agronomic crop in Gavkhuni...

Author(s): Hamidreza Salemi, Mohd Amin Mohd Soom, Teang Shui Lee, Sayed Farhad Mousavi, Arman Ganji and Mohd Kamil Yusoff

May 2011

Assessment of farming practices and uses of agrochemicals in Lake Manyara basin, Tanzania

  This study was conducted to assess farming practices, agrochemical usage and environmental pollution in Manyara basin, Tanzania. Field surveys, interviews, questionnaires and Lake Manyara nutrient analysis were used in data collection. The highestnumber (95%) of households grew crops, namely, maize, rice, banana and vegetables with median farm size of 3 ha. Irrigated farming was common (75%)...

Author(s): Nonga, H. E., Mdegela, R. H., Lie, E., Sandvik, M. and Skaare, J. U.,

May 2011

Biological activities of extracts from a naturally wild kiwifruit, Actinidia macrosperma

  In the forested lands of Georgia Kazbegi National Park, some kinds of insects have been significantly harming the bark beetle of trees as their population increases. The most harmful species within the 100 ha area of the national park, where Pinus sylvestris L. var.hamata (Steven) (Scots Pine) trees settle have been identified as Tomicus piniperda (L.) and Tomicus...

Author(s): Yin Lu, Yunpeng Zhao and Chengxin Fu

May 2011

Inoculation with Rhizobium etli enhances organic acid exudation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) subjected to phosphorus deficiency

  Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production is severely limited by phosphorus (P) deficiency in tropical and subtropical regions. Plants are known to exudate organic acids in order to survive in low nutrient environment. However, little is documented on the effect of inoculation on organic acids exudation by plants as a strategy to adapt to low P stress. In this study, the organic acids...

Author(s): Maureen Fonji Atemkeng, Roseline Remans, Jans Michiels, Appolinaire Tagne and Eddy Leonard Mangaptche Ngonkeu

May 2011

Effects of concentration, frequency of application and runoff of foliar-applied soluble silicon on powdery mildew of zucchini

  The effect of concentration, frequency of application and runoff of foliar-applied soluble silicon (Si) on the severity of powdery mildew (PM) of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) was evaluated. Soluble Si (250 to 1000 mgL-1), together with Break-Thru® (0.25 ml/L), was sprayed onto zucchini plants at frequencies of 1 to 3 times per week. The leaves of all plants were inoculated with a...

Author(s): H. B. Tesfagiorgis and M. D. Laing

May 2011

Effects of insect population density and storage time on grain damage and weight loss in maize due to the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais and the larger grain borer Prostephanus truncatus

  In the period 2007 to 2010, at localities Backi Maglic and Krivaja studies of weed seedbank were performed under soybean crop. Results showed that weed seed separated at Backi Maglic in all years dominated in the top soil layer, while the lowest quantities were separated from the deepest layer, and that number of weeds declined annually. At Krivaja, the lowest weed seed stocks were found in the top layer, and...

Author(s): Tadele Tefera, Stephen Mugo and Paddy Likhayo

May 2011

Effect of some organic waste extracts on hatching of Meloidogyne incognita eggs

  Plant parasitic nematodes significantly hinder food production particularly in the developing world where peasant farmers have little knowledge of these pests. Currently, synthetic pesticides which are highly detrimental to man and the environment are the principal means of nematode control. However, plant products might provide a sustainable control option as nematicidal properties have been identified in...

Author(s):   Osei K., Addico R., Nafeo A., Edu-Kwarteng A., Agyemang A., Danso Y. and Sackey-Asante J.

May 2011

Factors affecting technical change of productivity growth in rainbow trout aquaculture in Iran

  Rainbow trout farming is an important contributor to the aquaculture industry in Iran. This study number of the factors including the socio-economic factor was considered for analysing the factors affecting technical change in trout aquaculture. A two-stage estimation procedure for this analysis was applied. The Malmquist index is then employed to measure the productivity and technical change in the...

Author(s): Behrooz Hassanpour, Mohd Mansor Ismail, Zainalabidin Mohamed and Nitty Hirawaty Kamarulzaman

May 2011

Determinants of small scale farmers’ decision to join farmer based organizations in Ghana

  In recent times, governments of most developing countries have been promoting the formation and development of farmer based organizations as one of the keys to more rapid diffusion and cost-effective extension delivery to farmers. This is premised on the assumption that small-scale farmers can have easy access to market information, credit and input for their production, processing, and marketing activities...

Author(s): Bright Owusu Asante, Victor Afari–Sefa and Daniel Bruce Sarpong

May 2011

The influence of HCO3-, K+ and HSO3 - on RUBISCO large-subunit (rbcL) and small-subunit (rbcS) genes expression

  KHCO3 and NaHSO3 were sprayed on the leaves of cucumber, and HCO3-, K+, HSO3- in liquor can accelerate the expression of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RUBISCO)  large-subunit (rbcL) and RUBISCO small-subunit (rbcS) genes. These resultsproved that, mRNA content in the leaves of rbcL and rbcS was increased and the carboxylation...

Author(s): Jianjun Hao, Lina Liu, Yang Yu and Ruizhi Zhou

May 2011

Genetic parameters of some morphological and physiological traits in durum wheat genotypes (Triticum durum L.)

  In order to estimate the genetic parameters of some morphological and physiological traits indurum wheat, a simple lattice experimental was carried out by using 58 advanced lines and 6 landraces for two years during 2006 to 2008 at the Agriculture Research Station of Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, Iran. In this investigation traits like plant height, stomatal resistance,...

Author(s): Varahram Rashidi

May 2011

Total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of rice grains with extremely small size

  Whole cereal grains have been received increasingly attention by consumers due to their potential health benefits because of their antioxidant capacity, which is probably derived from their high contents of phenolics, flavonoids and other phytochemicals. Here, we reported the contents of phenolics and flavonoids in different rice genotypes with grain size ranging from extremely small to normal size. The...

Author(s): Shao Yafang, Zhang Gan and Bao Jinsong

May 2011

Genetic diversity of durum wheat landraces using multivariate analysis under normal irrigation and drought stress conditions

  To evaluate the genetic diversity in 37 durum wheat landraces originated from Iran and Azerbaijan, an experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was carried out in normal irrigation and drought stress conditions in agricultural research station of Islamic Azad University, Ardabil, Iran. Analysis of variance indicated that there were highly significant differences among the...

Author(s): Mostafa Ahmadizadeh, Hossein Shahbazi, Mostafa Valizadeh and Mohammad Zaefizadeh

May 2011

Assessment of farming practices and uses of agrochemicals in Lake Manyara basin, Tanzania

  This study was conducted to assess farming practices, agrochemical usage and environmental pollution in Manyara basin, Tanzania. Field surveys, interviews, questionnaires and Lake Manyara nutrient analysis were used in data collection. The highest number (95%) of households grew crops, namely, maize, rice, banana and vegetables with median farm size of 3 ha. Irrigated farming was common...

Author(s): Nonga, H. E., Mdegela, R. H., Lie, E., Sandvik, M. and Skaare, J. U.,

May 2011

The interaction effect of water stress and manure on yield components, essential oil and chemical compositions of cumin (Cuminum cyminum)

  Water stress enhances essential oils content in medicinal plants. Manure in soil prepares essential elements and increase quality and quantity of plant products. To study the effects of water stress and manure application on yield components, oil percentage and its main constituents on Cuminum cyminum, this experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station of Zahak, Zabol, south east of...

Author(s): Ahmad Ahmadian, Abolfazl Tavassoli and Ebrahim Amiri

May 2011

Study of weed seedbank in soybean crop

  In the period 2007 to 2010, at localities Backi Maglic and Krivaja studies of weed seedbank were performed under soybean crop. Results showed that weed seed separated at Backi Maglic in all years dominated in the top soil layer, while the lowest quantities were separated from the deepest layer, and that number of weeds declined annually. At Krivaja, the lowest weed seed stocks were found in the top layer, and...

Author(s): Branko Konstantinović, Maja Meseldžija, Milena Korać and Bojan Konstantinović

May 2011

Biphenyl sorption to different soil clay minerals

  Only limited information is available in the literature on the role of soil mineral surfaces in the sorption of hydrophobic organic pollutants. This knowledge gap is addressed through the assessment of biphenyl sorption to kaolinite, illite and bentonite; using the batch equilibration technique with incubations lasting 6 or 21 days at 28 ± 2°C in the dark [RT1]. Sorption of biphenyl onto...

Author(s):   Roman Tandlich, and Štefan Baláž,

May 2011

Persistent soil seed banks along altitudinal gradients in the Qilian Mountains in China and their significance for conservation management

  The qualitative and quantitative parameters of persistent soil seed bank, including species composition, seed density, vertical distribution and the relationship of soil seed bank and vegetation, were assessed along an altitudinal gradient in seven communities in shady slope, sunny slope and summit plain of Qilian Mountains. The highest density of soil seed bank of 3946 seeds m-2 was found in grassland...

Author(s): Qiuyan Li, Haiyan Fang and Qiangguo Cai

May 2011

Factors defining the distribution limit of tsetse infestation and the implication for livestock sector in Tanzania

  Tsetse survey to re-define its distribution limit in Tanzania was conducted from 2005 to 2009. Based on the old tsetse infestation map, tsetse sampling using odour baited biconical traps were deployed and emptied after 24 h during the onset of dry season. The survey covered the southern, western, northern and north eastern regions of the country. Obtained results indicated...

Author(s): Imna Malele, Hamisi Nyingilili and Atway Msangi

May 2011

Farmer perceptions and pathological constraints in helmeted guinea fowl farming in the Borgou department in North-East Benin

  Though the raising of helmeted guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) is an important part of rural farming in West-Africa, the death rate of keets within the first two months of life reaches values higher than 50%. The aim of this study conducted in North East Benin (Borgou department) was (i) to correlate the farming systems to keet morbidity and mortality rates; and (ii) to identify non-biological and biological...

Author(s): C. K. Boko, M. T. Kpodekon, S. Farougou, M. Dahouda, A. K. I. Youssao, G. L. Aplogan, J. Zanou and J. G. Mainil

May 2011

Investigation of the effect of water deficit stress on yield and yield components in sunflower hybrids

  In order to study the effect of water deficit stress on seed yield, yield component and some quantitative characteristics of sunflower hybrids, under three irrigation regimes (irrigation after 50 [normal irrigation], 100 [mild stress] and 150 [intense stress] mm cumulative evaporation from evaporation pan class A) and four sunflower hybrids (Azargol, Alstar, Hysun 33 and Hysun 25), an experimental split plot...

Author(s): Hussein Oraki, Iraj Alahdadi and Fataneh Parhizkar khajani

May 2011

The effect of pellet fertilizer application on corn yield and its components

  Increased use of chemical nitrogen fertilizers (N) in agricultural production continues to raise concerns, because of the risk of surplus N leaving the plant-soil system and thereby causing environmental contamination. Therefore, decreasing nitrate leaching from crop production fields, such as in corn fields, is of considerable importance. Against this backdrop, a field experiment was conducted to assess the...

Author(s): Reza-Bagheri, Gholam Ali-Akbari, Mohammad Hossein-Kianmehr, Zinol Abadin-Tahmasbi Sarvastani and Mehdi-Younessi Hamzekhanlu

May 2011

Influence of growth stage and variety on the pigment levels in Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato) leaves

  The study of pigments and nutritional composition in Ipomoea batatas has been intensive, yet little studies have been conducted on their leaves. I. batatas (sweet potato) leaves which are discarded after the harvesting period can be used as a potential source of natural dye extraction due to their high level of carotenoids (particularly lutein). Selection of leaves material is dependable...

Author(s): Seow-Mun Hue, Amru Nasrulhaq Boyce and Chandran Somasundram

May 2011

Calibration of time domain reflectometry (TDR) on the basis of torf sand and its optimisation for irrigation automations

  In this study, requirement calibrations performed for irrigation automation at the agricultural irrigation, particularly by means of taking as a base the torf sand, from the greenhouse, garden and flowerpot soil, were carried out. In order to make the TDR (time domain reflectometry) device suitable for watering automation, the water pump was automatically used to perform drip irrigation according to the...

Author(s): Ferhat Kup, Ramazan Saglam, Ibrahim Tobi, Hasan Sahin and Cevdet Saglam

May 2011

Variation of salinity tolerance in bean genotypes

  Bean is among the very sensitive plant species to soil salinity. This study was carried out using  the 55 bean genotypes collected from GevaÅŸ-Van region in Turkey to determine their salinity tolerance. This study aimed to investigate the salt tolerance capacity of this local bean population. 50 mM NaCl was applied to the bean seedlings, and the measurements and observations were done 20 days after the...

Author(s): Vahdettin Çiftçi, Önder Türkmen, Yusuf DoÄŸan, Çeknas Erdinç and Suat Åžensoy

May 2011

Characteristics of organic acids in the fruit of different pear species

  The contents of organic acids in the fruit of 40 cultivars of four major pear species, Pyrus ussuriensis, Pyrus bretschneideri, Pyrus pyrifolia, and Pyrus communis, were examined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the major components of organic acids present in the pear fruit were malic and citric acids. The total organic acid content and the individual...

Author(s): Shoufeng Sha, Juncai Li, Jun Wu and Shaoling Zhang

May 2011

Aclonifen: The identikit of a widely used herbicide

  Aclonifen is a herbicide with a diphenylether nucleus which has been authorized for agronomic use in France and Europe in 1983 (Corn, 1 kg.ha-1 and sunflower, 2.7 kg.ha-1 in pre-emergence) and in Turkey since 1994 (sunflowers, 1.8 kg.ha-1 and lentils, chickpeas, 0.75 kg.ha-1). This a.i. shows several characteristics which differ from the other members of its chemical family, especially its two...

Author(s): Özgür Kilinç

May 2011

Postharvest application of heats treatment and thiabendazole, sodium bicarbonate fungicides on decay control and characteristics quality and quantity in the "Valencia" orange

  The aim of this study was to assess the effect of heat treatments and fungicides on shelf life of Valencia orange. The research was conducted in a completely randomized design with 3 replications and 21 treatments at two levels of inoculation and no inoculation. Treatments were included: Thiabendazole (300, 600, 1500 and 2000 ppm), sodium bicarbonate (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2%), hot water (45, 50, 55 and 60°C)...

Author(s): Sajad Fatemi, Mehrdad Jafarpour and Hasan Borji

May 2011

Evaluation of some medicinal and ornamental plant extracts toward pomegranate aphid, Aphis punicae (Passerini) under laboratory conditions

  Ethanol and water extracts of five medicinal and ornamental plant species namely, Aerva lanata, Ruta chalepensis, Fagonia arabica, Malva parviflora, and Calotropis procera; were evaluated against pomegranate aphid, Aphis punicae Passerini under laboratory condition.Results indicated that the ethanol extract of R. chalepensis (whole plant) showed the highest...

Author(s): Sawsan S. Moawad and Amal M. F. Al-Barty

May 2011

Use of pheromone traps against Tomicus piniperda and Tomicus minor in the Kazbegi National Park, Georgian Republic

  In the forested lands of Georgia Kazbegi National Park, some kinds of insects have been significantly harming the bark beetle of trees as their population increases. The most harmful species within the 100 ha area of the national park, where Pinus sylvestris L. var.hamata (Steven) (Scots Pine) trees settle have been identified as Tomicus piniperda (L.) and Tomicus...

Author(s): Temel Gokturk and Yasar Aksu

May 2011

Contribution of input trade fairs to food security in rural Swaziland: Case study of households under the Ngwempisi constituency

  The objective of the study was to determine the contribution of input trade fairs (ITFs) to household food security in rural Swaziland.  Given the prevailing drought condition, a number of interventions, including ITFs, have been attempted to mitigate the effects of natural disasters on the livelihoods of rural households. Through a survey of 92 randomly selected households, a regression model was used,...

Author(s): M. S. Mashinini, M. M. Sithole and M. L. Mabuza

May 2011

Application of Judas tree (Cercis siliquastrum) in poems by Manochehri Damghani

  Cercis siliquastrum, commonly known as Judas tree, is a small deciduous tree from Southern Europe and Western Asia which is noted for its prolific display of deep-pink flowers in spring. Abu Najm Ahmad ibn Ahmad ibn Qaus Manuchehri, Also known as Manuchehri Damghani, was a royal poet of the 11th century in Persia. Cercis siliquastrumhas been used at 8 poetries lines that at 1 line used this plant in...

Author(s):   Fatemeh Mosazadeh-Sayadmahaleh, Ghassem Habibi Bibalani