African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12254

Full Length Research Paper

Trials to improve the response of Orechromis niloticus to Aeromonas hydrophila vaccine using immunostimulants (garlic, Echinacea) and probiotics (Organic GreenTM and Vet-YeastTM)

Salah Mesalhy Aly
  • Salah Mesalhy Aly
  • Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine/Fish Farming and Technology Institute, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.
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Mohamed A. Al Zohairy
  • Mohamed A. Al Zohairy
  • Department of Medical Laboratory, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, KSA.
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Arshad H. Rahmani
  • Arshad H. Rahmani
  • Department of Medical Laboratory, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, KSA.
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Mohamed Fathi
  • Mohamed Fathi
  • National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Suez, Egypt/Post-Doctoral Fellow, Aquaculture and Genetic Improvement WorldFish, Egypt.
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Nashwa M. Abdel Atti
  • Nashwa M. Abdel Atti
  • Animal Health Research Institute, Ismailia Lab, Dokki Giza, Egypt.
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  •  Received: 08 December 2015
  •  Accepted: 19 April 2016
  •  Published: 25 May 2016


This work aimed to investigate the role of some immunostimulants and probiotics in improving the response of overwintered tilapia to Aeromonas hydrophila vaccine. In this study, 15000 Nile tilapia fry (Orechromis niloticus) were collected and divided into five groups. Group 1 was the control, groups 2 to 5 were fed diet supplemented with garlic, Echinacea, Organic GreenTM and Vet-YeastTM respectively for 5 months. Vaccination with A. hydrophila bacteria was done by the end of the feeding experiment. The antibody titer of the vaccinated overwintered tilapia of all groups showed no significant changes during the same sampling time. A significant high value in the antibody titer was recognized in vaccinated overwintered tilapia at the end of 6th-8th week post-vaccination (PV) in the control group and between the 4th – 8th week PV in the immunostimulant supplemented groups (Groups 2-3), and between the 2nd – 10th week PV in probiotic supplemented groups (Groups 4 and 5). The challenge infection of the vaccinated tilapia showed the highest mortality in Group 1 while the lowest mortality was seen in Group 5. However, maximum protection after challenge was seen at 6th week PV in other treated groups. The immunostimulants and probiotics under test proved efficient in improving the immune response to vaccination which will improve the resistance of tilapia fry against infection during the winter. The overall results are promising to implement overwintering fry culture program to economically maximize and efficiently use the available aquaculture facilities throughout the year.


Key words: Tilapia, overwintering, immunostimulants, probiotics, vaccines, pathogens.