Eleven strains of benthic dinoflagellates (Amphidinium carterae (D1), Prorocentrum rhathymum (D2), Symbiodinium sp. (D3), Coolia malayensis 1 (D4), Ostreopsis ovata 1 (D5), Ostreopsis ovata 2 (D6), Coolia malayensis 2 (D7), Amphidinium operculatum 1 (D8), Heterocapsa psammophila (D9), Coolia malayensis 3 (D10) and Amphidinium operculatum 2 (D11)) were collected in Jeju Island, Korea and cultured in 20 L carboys after establishing unialgal cultures. Their growth potential and biomass productivity were evaluated using two different culture media (IMK and f/2 medium); it was found that IMK medium has the potential to culture benthic dinoflagellates compared to commonly used f/2 medium. Among the benthic dinoflagellates, A. carterae (D1) had the maximum cell density (148.6 × 103 cells mL-1), growth rate (0.317 ± 0.01 divisions day-1) and biomass (0.260 ± 0.03 g L-1 dry weight) in IMK medium at 20 days of culture. Also, screened bioactivities among the methanolic extracts of cultured dinoflagellates showed A. carterae (D1) to have the highest antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect and O. ovata 1 (D5) had the highest anticancer activity compared to the other strains. Taken together, this is the first report on the growth potential and biomass production of benthic dinoflagellate strains isolated from Jeju Island in appropriate culture medium as well as their importance in potential pharmacological applications.
Key words: Amphidinium carterae, benthic dinoflagellates, biomass, bioactivities, culture conditions, Jeju Island.
Abbreviations: PSP, paralytic shellfish poisoning; NSP, neurotoxic shellfish poisoning; AZP, azaspiracid poisoning; DSP, diarrheic shellfish poisoning; CFP, ciguatera fish poisoning; DPPH, 1,1-diphenyl-2-pricrylhydrazyl; ESR, electro spin resonance; DMEM, Dulbecco's modified eagle medium; RPMI, Roswell park memorial institute; FBS, fetal bovine serum; NO, nitric oxide; ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; MTT, 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide; DMSO, dimethylsulfoxide.
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