African Journal of
Biotechnology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12370

Full Length Research Paper

Quantification and characterization of faecal sludge produced in Kara

Piyabalo KODOM
  • Piyabalo KODOM
  • Laboratory of Sanitation, Water Science and Environment (LASEE), Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Kara, P. O. BOX 404 Kara, Togo.
  • Google Scholar
Edem Komi KOLEDZI
  • Edem Komi KOLEDZI
  • Laboratory of Management, Treatment and valuation of Waste (GTVD), Department of Chemistry, University of Lomé, P. O. Box 1515 Lomé, Togo.
  • Google Scholar
Nitale M’Balikine KROU
  • Nitale M’Balikine KROU
  • Laboratory of Sanitation, Water Science and Environment (LASEE), Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Kara, P. O. BOX 404 Kara, Togo.
  • Google Scholar
Kwamivi N. SEGBEAYA
  • Kwamivi N. SEGBEAYA
  • Laboratory of Sanitation, Water Science and Environment (LASEE), Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Kara, P. O. BOX 404 Kara, Togo.
  • Google Scholar
Bouwèdèo TOI BISSANG
  • Bouwèdèo TOI BISSANG
  • Laboratory of Sanitation, Water Science and Environment (LASEE), Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Kara, P. O. BOX 404 Kara, Togo.
  • Google Scholar


  •  Received: 08 January 2021
  •  Accepted: 26 April 2021
  •  Published: 31 May 2021

Abstract

In Kara (Togo), as in most major sub-Saharan African cities, there is very little sewerage and autonomous systems are the most commonly used. These autonomous systems produce faecal sludge that must be drained and treated adequately in order to preserve the health of the population and protect the environment. Indeed, the risks are real, given the use of fresh faecal sludge in agriculture and the potential dangers of their raw rejection in nature. The purpose of this study was to quantify and characterize the faecal sludge derived from autonomous sanitation system and make available to the district of Kara. Sludge emptying trucks have been followed during a three months’ period to quantify the faecal sludge produced. At the end, samples were taken to the laboratory for analysis. The chemical analysis conducted were suspended matter (SM), chemical oxygen demand (COD), a five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), ammonium (NH4+), nitrates (NO3-), nitrites (NO2-) and orthophosphates (PO43-). The result showed that 41347.2 m3/year of faecal sludge are produced and 14616 m3/year are collected. Also, the chemical analysis of total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, a five-day biochemical oxygen demand, ammonium, nitrates, nitrites and orthophosphates showed that the faecal sludge of the district of Kara is biodegradable. The data from this study will form scientific bases for a better feasibility of setting up a faecal sludge treatment plant in Kara.

 

Key words: Faecal sludge, specific ratio, quantity of faecal sludge, autonomous systems.