African Journal of
Biotechnology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12485

Full Length Research Paper

Chemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of Goniothalamus macrophyllus (Annonaceae) from Pasoh Forest Reserve, Malaysia

A. G. Siti Humeirah1,3*, M. A. Nor Azah1, M. Mastura2, J. Mailina1, J. A. Saiful2, H. Muhajir3,5 and A. M. Puad3,4
1Product Development and Formulation Programme, Medicinal Plants Division, Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) 52109 Kepong, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 2Bioactivity Programme, Medicinal Plants Division, Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) 52109 Kepong, Selangor, Malaysia. 3Institute of Bioscience, University Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. 4Department of Animal Cell, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. 5Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.
Email: [email protected], [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 17 May 2010
  •  Published: 23 August 2010

Abstract

The essential oils from the twig and root of Goniothalamus macrophyllus were obtained by hydrodistillation and subjected to Gas Chromatography (GC-FID) and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) using CBP-5 capillary column in order to determine their chemical composition. Both twig and root oils and four reference standard compounds (α-pinene, linalool, geraniol and geranyl acetate) were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties against gram positive and gram negative bacteria, yeast and dermatophyte fungi using broth microdilution methods. The GCMS analysis revealed twenty-one and fourteen compounds from twig and root oils which represented 90.0 and 42.5% of the total oils, respectively. The oils were found to possess the following major components: twig: geranyl acetate (45.5%), geraniol (17.0%), linalool (12.7%) and camphene (7.5%); root: cyperene (9.8%), geranyl acetate (9.4%), geraniol (3.4%) and linalool (2.6%). Other components present in appreciable amounts in both essential oils were α-pinene (0.8%) and benzaldehyde (0.5%). The root oil exhibited the most notable inhibitory activity (0.3 mg/ml) against Vancomycin intermediate-resistance Staphylococcus aureus (VISA 24)Staphylococcus epidermidis and Candida albicans. α-pinene meanwhile inhibited the bacteria and fungal growth at 0.3 and 2.5 mg/ml. With regards to antimicrobial potential, α-pinene superceeds linalool, geraniol and geranyl acetate, respectively.  

 

Key words: Goniothalamus macrophyllus, Annonaceae, essential oils, geranyl acetate, cyperene, geraniol, linalool, α-pinene, antimicrobial activity.

Abbreviation

GC-FID, Gas Chromatography-Flame ionization detector; GC-MS,gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; TSB, tryptic soy broth; SDB, sobouraud dextrose broth; DMSO, dimethyl sulfoxide.