African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12269

Full Length Research Paper

Acute toxicity and behavioral changes of Caspian kutum (Rutilus frisii Kutum Kamensky, 1991) and Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus Jakowlew, 1870) exposed to the fungicide hinosan

Saeid Shahbazi Naserabad*
  • Saeid Shahbazi Naserabad*
  • Young Researchers and Elite Club, Yasuoj Branch of Islamic Azad University, Yasuoj, Iran.
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Alireza Mirvaghefi
  • Alireza Mirvaghefi
  • Departement of Fisheries, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran.
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Mohammad Hasan Gerami
  • Mohammad Hasan Gerami
  • Young Researchers and Elite Club, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran.
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Hamed Ghafari Farsani
  • Hamed Ghafari Farsani
  • Young Researchers and Elite Club, Shahrekord Branch of Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord, Iran.
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  •  Received: 11 February 2015
  •  Accepted: 15 May 2015
  •  Published: 20 May 2015


Pesticides are used in agriculture to control pest and protect human health and animals. Excessive use of pesticides caused risk for human health and threated non-target organisms, polluted water, soil and air. Hinosan is a component of organophosphate pesticide which is used as a fungicide in agricultural fields. In the study, lethal concentration (LC50) of Hinosan was calculated for Rutilus frisii kutum and Rutilus rutilus caspicus with a mean weight of 3 ± 1 g [mean ± SD]. The experiment were carried out in static condition and based on instructions of O.E.C.D in four days under controlled water physicochemical factors with pH = 7 to 8.5, dissolved oxygen = 200 mg Lā€‘1 (CaCO3) and temperature = 20 ± 1°C. Fishes were acclimatized in 70x40x30 cm aquarium for 10 days. Five treated aquariums with concentration ranges 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 ppm of hinosan (Technical 95 Edifenphos) with one control group (no toxic concentration), were performed. Data were analysed using the probit analysis. LC1, LC10, LC30, LC50, LC70, LC90 and LC99 were calculated in 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. Our results indicate that LC50 96 h hinosan for R. frisii Kutum and R. rutilus caspicus were obtained 3.61 and 2.88 ppm, respectively. These findings suggest that hinosan is medium toxicity for these two species. Clinical symptoms including irregular protrusion of the eyes and irregular swimming were observed.


Key words: Organophosphore, hinosan, Rutilus frisii kutum, Rutilus rutilus caspicus, LC50, pollution.


MAC, Maximum allowable concentration; LOEC, the lowest observable effect concentration; NOEC, no observable effect concentration.