Cytogenetics are almost always based on the examination of the fixed mitotic chromosomes during the analyses of metaphase. During this phase of the cycle of cells, the DNA is folded up and chromatin is strongly condensed. The relative position of the centromere is constant, which means that the ratio of the lengths of the two arms is constant for each chromosome. Importantly, each chromosome displays a unique banding pattern. Different staining methods showed the banding pattern (g band), centromere position (c band), cytophotometric estimation and specific DNA regions (FISH). This study aims to show the important chromosome staining methods.
Key words: Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), chromosome staining, g- banding, c – banding, cytophotometric estimation.
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