African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12278

Full Length Research Paper

Abnormal plantlets regeneration through direct somatic embryogenesis on immature seeds of Vinca herbacea Waldst. and Kit

Babak Delnavaz Hashemloian1*, Azra Ataei-Azimi1, Ahmad Majd2 and Hassan Ebrahimzadeh3
  1Biological Department, Islamic Azad University of Saveh Branch, Iran. 2Biological Department, Teacher Training of Tehran, Iran. 3Biological Department, Tehran University, Iran.
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 17 April 2008
  •  Published: 03 June 2008



A protocol of plant regeneration through direct somatic embryogenesis was established for the first time on Vinca herbacea using immature seed explants. Frequency of embryogenesis was significantly influenced by size of the seeds and growth regulators supplemented to the medium. Seeds isolated from the immature fruits between 15 and 20 days after flowering were superior in the induction of somatic embryos. Only 35% of seeds induced somatic embryos. Somatic embryos developed best on N2 medium with 0.5 mg l1 2,4-D and 0.5mg l1 Kin. An increase in competence for somatic embryogenesis was found with the cotyledons, while the hypocotyls part completely lost their competence. The minor seeds never initiated somatic embryo, even after 2 months of culture. Somatic embryo formation principally occurred with the major seeds. Maturation embryos developed into plantlets at a frequency of 100% when planted in free MS medium for a further 5 - 6 week period. After 5 or 6 weeks, plantlets developed in small plants. The growth rates, genotype and morphological characteristics of plantlets were different but 55% of the embryos have normal shape and 45% were abnormal.


Key words: Embryo formation, growth regulators, plantlet.


2,4-D, 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid; Kin, kinetin; MS, Murashige and Skoog; 2,4,5-T, 2,4,5-threechlorophenoxy acetic acid; IAA, indole acetic acid; IBA, indole buteric acid.