African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12357

Table of Content: 3 June 2008; 7(11)

June 2008

Innovation system approach to agricultural development: Policy implications for agricultural extension delivery in Nigeria

  A sustainable and dynamic approach to agricultural development has remained of great concern to the government and priority for discourse in the policy arena. Past efforts have concentrated on investment in research and development which was established on the consensus that the application of science and technology is responsible for the structural transformation required to propel the agricultural sector....

Author(s): Agwu, A. E., Dimelu, M. U. and Madukwe, M. C.

June 2008

Comparative studies of antimycotic potential of thyme and clove oil extracts with antifungal antibiotics on Candida albicans

  This study was undertaken to compare the antifungal properties of clove (Syzygium aromaticus) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) oils with the synthetic antifungal agents notably, amphotericin B, itraconazole, fluconazole and ketoconazole against Candida albicans in vitro. This is necessary if oil extracts can replace antifungal antibiotics as agents for the treatment of candidiasis. The minimal inhibitory...

Author(s): Nzeako, B. C. and Bushra Al. Lawati

June 2008

Micronutrient levels in the plasma of Nigerian females with breast cancer

  The levels of heavy and essential metals in the serum of breast cancer patients were determined, in order to find out which of them could be of importance in the treatment and prognosis of the cancer. Serum copper, zinc, iron, magnesium, manganese, chromium, cadmium, lead and selenium were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometer in 29 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients and compared with 30...

Author(s): Arinola, O. G. and Charles-Davies, M. A.

June 2008

Quantitative and qualitative analysis of sterols/sterolins and hypoxoside contents of three Hypoxis (African potato) spp.

  The glycoside, hypoxoside, identified and isolated from the corms of the African potato (Hypoxis hemerocallidea) has shown promising anticancer activities. The African potato is used as an African traditional medicine for its nutritional and medicinal properties. Most research has been carried out on H. hemerocallidea(formerly known as H. rooperi), with very little or nothing on...

Author(s): Gerhardt J. Boukes, Maryna van de Venter and Vaughan Oosthuizen

June 2008

Evaluation of in vitro antimycobacterial activity of Nigerian plants used for treatment of respiratory diseases

      Full Length Research Paper   Evaluation of in vitro antimycobacterial activity of Nigerian plants used for treatment of respiratory diseases   A. Mann1*, J. O. Amupitan2, A. O. Oyewale2, J. I. Okogun3, K. Ibrahim 4, P. Oladosu4, L. Lawson5, I. Olajide5 and...

Author(s): A. Mann, J. O. Amupitan, A. O. Oyewale, J. I. Okogun, K. Ibrahim , P. Oladosu, L. Lawson, I. Olajide and A. Nnamdi

June 2008

Incidence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Staphylococcus aureus amongst patients with urinary tract infection (UTI) in UBTH Benin City, Nigeria

  Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most widely spread human pathogen. Considering the havoc it causes on life and subsequently on the economy, it became necessary to determine its incidence and antibiogram in our environment for adequate control and treatment. Records of microbial cultures and antibiotic sensitivity test results of suspected cases of urinary tract infection (UTI) of the University of...

Author(s): E. E. Akortha and O. K. Ibadin

June 2008

ABO and Rhesus ‘D’ blood type distribution in students admitted into Moshood Abiola Polytechnic, Abeokuta, Nigeria in 2006

  All 2000 healthy students of Moshood Abiola Polytechnic, Abeokuta, Nigeria (intakes of 2006/2007 academic session) comprising of 1058 females and 942 males were screened for ABO and Rhesus ‘D’ blood type. The analysis of the results shows O+ (49.75%), A+ (20.30%), B+ (19.60%), AB+ (3.70%), O- (3.95%), A- (1.10%), B- (1.35%) and AB- (0.25%). These values...

Author(s): Idowu Oluwadare and Sade Shonekan

April 2008

Detection of latent infection by Ralstonia solanacearum in potato (Solanum tuberosum) using stems instead of tubers

The potential of using stems for the detection of latent infection caused byRalstonia solanacearum (Rs) was studied. Forty plants each were collected from four farms with bacterial wilt incidence below 4% in two growing seasons (season A and season B of 2005). The tubers of all the selected plants including 10 cm of the all lower stems were collected. Samples were taken to the laboratory for indexing...

Author(s): Mwangi, J. K., Nyende, A. B., Demo, P. and Matiru, V. N.

June 2008

Changes in micronutrients, dry weight and plant growth of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) cultivars under salt stress

  This study was carried out to determine the effects of salt stress on the growth, dry weights and micronutrient contents of soybean cultivars grown in green house conditions. Twelve soybean cultivars (Omaha, A-3127, Mancon, Stresland, LN-89-3264, NE-3297, Ap-2292, Althow, Irigious, S-4520, Amsoy-71 and Cisne) were exposed to salinity treatments (150 mM NaCl and Control). Shoot, leaf and root dry...

Author(s): Murat Tunçturk, Ruveyde Tunçturk and Fikret Yasar

June 2008

The effect of autumn and spring planting time on seed yield and protein content of chickpea genotypes

  The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of autumn and spring plantings on seed yield and quality of chickpea genotypes. Fourteen chickpea genotypes were grown over the consecutive two growing seasons in northwest Turkey. The results showed that planting time had significant effects on the investigated traits (P < 0.05). Significant differences for yield were observed between autumn (2050...

Author(s): Åžemun Tayyar, Cem Ö. Egesel, Kemal M. Gül and Hakan Turhan

June 2008

Analysis of Kenyan isolates of Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli from common bean using colony characteristics, pathogenicity and microsatellite DNA

  Fusarium solani (Mart) f.sp. phaseoli (Burk) Synd. and Hans., is a plant pathogenic fungus that causes root rot in garden bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). To evaluate methods used in classifying strains of this pathogen, 52 Fusarium solani f.sp. phaseoli isolates from infected bean plants grown on different farms in Taita hills of Coast province, Kenya, were cultured and...

Author(s): Agnes W. Mwang’ombe, Pixley K. Kipsumbai, Ezekiel K. Kiprop, Florence M. Olubayo and Joel W. Ochieng,

June 2008

In vitro evaluation of the interactions between acetone extracts of Garcinia kola seeds and some antibiotics

  The effect of combinations of the acetone extract of Garcinia kola seeds and six first-line antibiotics was investigated by means of fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices as well as by the use of time kill assays. Using the FIC indices, synergistic interactions were observed largely against gram positive organisms (FIC indices of 0.52 - 0.875) with combinations against gram negatives...

Author(s): Sibanda, T. and Okoh, A. I.

June 2008

Abnormal plantlets regeneration through direct somatic embryogenesis on immature seeds of Vinca herbacea Waldst. and Kit

  A protocol of plant regeneration through direct somatic embryogenesis was established for the first time on Vinca herbacea using immature seed explants. Frequency of embryogenesis was significantly influenced by size of the seeds and growth regulators supplemented to the medium. Seeds isolated from the immature fruits between 15 and 20 days after flowering were superior in the induction of...

Author(s): Babak Delnavaz Hashemloian, Azra Ataei-Azimi, Ahmad Majd and Hassan Ebrahimzadeh

June 2008

In vitro time kill assessment of crude methanol extract of Helichrysum pedunculatum leaves

  The in vitro antibacterial activities and time kill regimes of crude methanol extract of Helichrysum pedunculatum was assessed using standard microbiological procedures. The experiment was conducted against a panel of bacterial species made up of clinical, environmental and reference strains. The extract was active against eleven of the twenty-one bacteria tested at a concentration of 10...

Author(s): Aiyegoro, O. A., Afolayan, A. J. and Okoh, A. I.

June 2008

Influence of DNA treatments on Southern blot hybridization analysis of Fusarium oxysporum F. sp lycopersici and F. sp radicis-lycopersici genomic DNAs

  DNA samples obtained by a non-phenol /chloroform isolation method, from three races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and f. sp. radicis-lycopersiciwere treated in different ways with a view to evaluating the effect of three pre-electrophoresis DNA treatments on the outcome of Southern blot hybridization analysis using a Digoxigenin (DIG)-IGS fragment probe. Results showed that...

Author(s): Olusegun Samuel Balogun

June 2008

Iron(III) biosorption by Polyporus squamosus

  Polyporus squamosus was tested for its ability to absorb Fe(III) ions from solutions. Kinetic and isotherm sorption experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of contact time, pH,  metal concentration, dose of the adsorbent, ionic strength and glucose. The increases in initial concentration of metal and pH of the solutions resulted in an increase in iron uptake. The equilibrium data could be...

Author(s): R. Razmovski and M. ŠÄ‡iban

June 2008

Lubricating oil-degrading bacteria in soils from filling stations and auto- mechanic workshops in Buea, Cameroon: occurrence and characteristics of isolates

  The discharge of used crankcase oil from vehicles is a major source of oil pollution in Buea. The objectives of this study were to isolate and characterize bacteria capable of effectively degrading and cleaning up waste engine oil in this locality and also to ascertain the influence of some environmental factors on the rates of degradation of these isolates. Seventy-two soil samples collected from lubricating...

Author(s): Jane-Francis T. K. Akoachere, Theresa N. Akenji, Felicitas N. Yongabi, Gerald Nkwelang and Roland N. Ndip,

June 2008

Detection of elevated CO2 responsive QTLs for yield and its components in rice

  A mapping population of IR24 (indica) chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) in Asominori (japonica) background was used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for response to elevated CO2 in yield and its components of rice in free air CO2 enrichment (FACE, atmospheric CO2 plus 200 µmol CO2• mol-1) and natural atmospheric CO2 (Ambient) conditions. Transgressive...

Author(s): Guizhi Fan, , Xiaocan Li, Qingsheng Cai and Jianguo Zhu

June 2008

Evaluation of ground water quality of Mubi town in Adamawa State, Nigeria

  The ground water quality of Mubi Town in Mubi North Local Government Area of Adamawa State was studied to examine the suitability or otherwise of their use  of the groundwater for drinking and domestic purposes. Ten ground water samples from boreholes and dug wells were randomly collected each during raining seasons in the months of June, July and August, 2007. The samples were analyzed with reference to...

Author(s): Priscilla Alexander

June 2008

Evaluation of the antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties of the methanolic extract of Acalypha racemosa leaf in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats

  The effects of simultaneous treatment of CCl4 with 60 and 120 mg/kg body weight of methanolic extract of Acalypha racemosa on rat liver were evaluated. Analysis of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities with those of the concentrations...

Author(s): Iniaghe, O. M., Malomo, S. O., Adebayo, J. O., and Arise, R. O.

June 2008

Ameliorative effects of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius on anaemia and osmotic fragility induced by protein-energy malnutrition

  This study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of dietary supplementation of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf on anaemia and changes in erythrocyte osmotic fragility in protein energy malnourished rats. Protein energy malnutrition has been associated with anaemia and changes in osmotic fragility, deformability and lifespan of erythrocytes. In this study, protein-energy malnutrition...

Author(s): Oyagbemi, A. A., Odetola, A. A. and Azeez, O. I.

June 2008

Steroids isolated from Millettia versicolor Baker (Fabaceae)

  The objective of this investigation was to isolate and determine the chemical constituents of the leaves of Millettia versicolor Baker, a medicinal plant used in the traditional pharmacopoeias of Central Africa, essentially for its pain-relieving and anti-parasitic properties. A methanol extract of the leaves was made. The chemical compounds isolated were analyzed by HPLC/MS and GC/MS. The...

Author(s): Ongoka, P. R., Banzouzi, J. T., Poupat, C., Ekouya, A., Ouamba, J. M. and Moudachirou, M.

June 2008

Toxin production in food as influenced by pH, thermal treatment and chemical preservatives

  Sixteen foods borne bacteria were isolated from raw food samples including okro, carrot, spinach, pepper, tomato, onion and cooked food samples (rice, yam, beans, meat and plantain). The isolates were characterized and identified asBacillus brevis, Bacillus congulans, Bacillus polymyxa, Bacillus lentus, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus...

Author(s): Oladipo, I. C., Adebiyi, A. O. and Ayandele, A. A.

June 2008

Evaluation of antibacterial activity and acute toxicity of the hydroethanolic extract of Stachytarpheta angustifolia (Mill) Vahl.

  The aim of this study was to evaluate antibacterial activity, acute toxicity in mice and phytochemical profiles of hydroethanolic extract of Stachytarpheta angustifolia plant. The plant S. angustifolia has attracted the attention of the researchers because of its use as an anti-infection agent. The aqueous ethanol (80%) extract of the powdered dried whole plant was obtained by maceration....

Author(s): Enwuru, N. V., Ogbonnia, S. O., Nkemehule, F., Enwuru, C. A. and Tolani, O.

June 2008

The kinetics of glucose production from rice straw by Aspergillus niger

  In this investigation, glucose was produced from rice straw using cells ofAspergillus niger, isolated from maize grain. Glucose yield was found to increase from 43 to 87% as the rice straw particle size decreased from 425 to 75 µm, while the optimal temperature and pH were found within the range of 45 - 50°C and 4.5 - 5 respectively. The concentration and rate of glucose production was observed to...

Author(s): B. O. Aderemi, E. Abu and B. K. Highina

June 2008

Qualitative evaluation of Kilishi prepared from beef and pork

  Kilishi is an intermediate moisture meat product of the tropics, prepared from sun-dried lean beef infused with spices and defatted groundnut paste (DGP). This study evaluates the quality traits in Kilishi prepared from beef and pork. The proximate composition and the organoleptic characteristics of Kilishi from beef and pork were studied in a completely randomized design. The effect of  three...

Author(s): O. O. Ogunsola and A. B. Omojola

June 2008

Regeneration of Sudanese maize inbred lines and open pollinated varieties

  Eight maize inbred lines and three open pollinated varieties from Sudan were evaluated for their response to tissue culture. Immature embryos obtained 16 days after pollination were used as explants for callus induction. Calli were induced on LS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Callus induction capacity was highest in inbred lines IL3, IL15 and IL1. The Varieties Hudiba-2 and...

Author(s): Rasha Adam Omer, , Abdelbagi M. Ali , Jonathan M. Matheka and Jesse Machuka

June 2008

Effect of age on somatic embryogenesis from immature zygotic embryos of 5 Turkish triticale genotypes

  Triticale is an important cereal crop grown throughout the world. The study reports somatic embryogenesis from immature zygotic embryos of 5 Turkish triticale genotypes. The explants were initially cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2 mg dm-3  2,4-D, 500 mg dm-3 glutamine, 100 mg dm-3casein hydrolysate, 2% sucrose and 7% agar for two weeks in the dark. The temperature was maintained...

Author(s): Mehmet Atak, Muharrem Kaya, Khalid Mahmood Khawar, Sevil Saglam, Sebahattin Özcan and Cemalettin Yasar Ciftci

June 2008

A profile of the introduced Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces: Teleostei) populations in Lake Victoria Region in relation to its putative origin of Lakes Edward and Albert (Uganda - E. Africa) based on random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis

  Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker analyses were used to profile the ‘ecological explosion’ of the introduced Oreochromis niloticus in the basins of Lakes Victoria and Kyoga in comparison to its putative origin of Lakes Edward, George and Albert.  O. niloticus is currently the dominant tilapiine in Lakes Victoria and Kyoga basins following its introductions...

Author(s): Wilson W.  Mwanja, Gregory C. Booton, Les Kaufman and Paul A. Fuerst

June 2008

Population genetic structure of coral reef species Plectorhinchus flavomaculatus in South China Sea

  The population genetic structure and the dispersal ability of Plectorhinchus flavomaculatus from South China Sea were examined with a 464 bp segment of mtDNA control region. A total of 116 individuals were collected from 12 coral reefs in Xisha, Zhongsha and Nansha archipelagos and 22 haplotypes were obtained. Two lineages were detected, which might have diverged in different glacial refuge during...

Author(s): Zhi Qiang Han#, Yong Zhen Li#, Guo Bao Chen and Tian Xiang Gao

June 2008

The effect of lactose-in-saline infusion on packed cell volume variation during trypanosoma vivax – induced anaemia of cattle

  The effect of intravenous infusion of a solution of lactose-in-normal saline on the course of Trypanosoma vivax induced anaemia in Zebu yearlings was investigated. The animals were infected with 11 x 106 trypanosomes by jugular venipuncture and lactose-in-normal saline infusion started on day 6, post-infection (p.i). Three four-hourly doses of 0.5 g lactose/kg body weight were administered to...

Author(s): I. A. Umar, I. O. Igbokwe, J. J. Omage, D. A. Ameh, H. O. Kwanashieand K. A. N. Esievo