African Journal of
Biotechnology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12269

Full Length Research Paper

Physical-chemical characteristics and antioxidant potential of seed and pulp of Ximenia americana L. from the semiarid region of Brazil

Jose Darcio Abrantes Sarmento
  • Jose Darcio Abrantes Sarmento
  • Departamento de Ciencias Vegetais, Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido, CEP 59625-900, Mossoro, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.
  • Google Scholar
Patricia Ligia Dantas de Morais
  • Patricia Ligia Dantas de Morais
  • Departamento de Ciencias Vegetais, Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido, CEP 59625-900, Mossoro, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.
  • Google Scholar
Francisco Israel de Souza
  • Francisco Israel de Souza
  • Departamento de Ciencias Vegetais, Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido, CEP 59625-900, Mossoro, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.
  • Google Scholar
Maria Raquel Alcantara de Miranda
  • Maria Raquel Alcantara de Miranda
  • Departamento de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Centro de Ciencias, CEP 60440-554, Fortaleza, Ceara, Brazil
  • Google Scholar


  •  Received: 27 January 2015
  •  Accepted: 15 May 2015
  •  Published: 20 May 2015

Abstract

Ximenia americana popularly known as wild plum grow wildly in Brazilian semiarid region and its fruit were harvested in two maturity stages and evaluated for quality. The experimental design was completely randomized with three treatments (immature, mature pulp and seeds), and treatment effect was evaluated for pulp fraction (composed of both mesocarp and exocarp or peel) in maturation stages: immature (largest size with green colored peel), mature (largest size with yellow colored peel) and seeds of mature fruits, from eight repetitions of 25 fruits each, totaling 200 fruits per treatment. Fruit were separated and evaluated for physical and physicochemical variables, mineral composition, bioactive compounds content and total antioxidant activity (TAA). The X. americana grown in Brazilian semiarid region presents a great potential to further commercial exploitation. The pulp, aside its maturation stage contains high levels of lipids, proteins, sugars, starch, titratable acidity, vitamin C, yellow flavonoids, polyphenols and antioxidant activity. The seed also presents high levels of lipid, protein, starch, total extractable polyphenols and antioxidant activity. Imature pulp stands out for acidity, polyphenol, flavonoid and anthcyanin levels, while mature fruit pulp has higher yield, sugar and vitamin C levels. Seeds have higher starch, protein and lipi levels. The antioxidant activity found for wild plum pulp could be attributed to polyphenol and vitamin C contents; meanwhile, the antioxidant activity of seeds was dependent only on polyphenolic content. Pulp had higher Na, K, Mg, Ca and Fe levels, however, both seed and pulp fractions have substantial contents of P, K, Cu and Mn.

 

Key words: Development, bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, minerals, quality.