African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12311

Table of Content: 12 July 2010; 9(28)

July 2010

The plant biotechnology flight: Is Africa on board?

The development of plant biotechnologies has been very rapid in recent times, especially in the developed countries. The technologies have created a new branch of biotechnology known as molecular farming, where plants are engineered to produce pharmaceutical and technical proteins in large quantities. An evaluation of the status of plant biotechnology development in Africa revealed that majority of the countries that...

Author(s): Olawole O. Obembe,

July 2010

Partial cloning and estimation of the Culex pipiens (SELAX strain) B2 amplicon

The mechanism of resistance towards organophosphate insecticides in Culexcomplex mosquitoes has been shown to be associated with amplification of the structural esterase gene. The cloned portion of the SELAX strain A2-B2 amplicon was compared to that of the B1 amplicon which had been partially characterized. Fragments of known sizes from clones were used as probes to estimate the length of the B2 amplicon in the...

Author(s): N. Makate and A. Callaghan

July 2010

Optimization of micropropagation and establishment of cell suspension culture in Melissa officinalis L.

Melissa officinalis L., due to its useful application in medicine, is being paid more attention. In order to establish a stable regeneration system with 4 landraces collected from different climate in Iran, major parameters such as regeneration rate, rooting percentage, shooting induction, proliferation rate, fresh and dry weight as a biomass of cells were investigated. Statistical analysis of results showed...

Author(s): H. Meftahizade, M. Lotfi and H. Moradkhani

July 2010

Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis detects variation in a micro propagated clone of Trichodesma indicum (L.) R. Br.

RAPD profile revealed variation among the individuals of a single clone of micro propagated plants of Trichodesma indicum. Callus was developed from a single zygotic embryo differentiated into multiple micro shoots on Murashige and Skoog’s medium supplemented with 2.32 µM kinetin. A single node excised from a micro shoot produced multiple shoots after three sub cultures on MS medium containing 0.23...

Author(s): Neelambra Verma, V. Koche, K. L. Tiwari and S. K. Mishra

July 2010

A comparative study of Curcuma zedoaria and Zingiber zerumbet plantlet production using different micropropagation systems

Curcuma zedoaria and Zingiber zerumbet plantlets could be micropropagated via induction of multiple shoots from in vitro shoot explants using different culture systems such as the agar-gelled medium cultures, shake flask system and temporary immersion system (TIS). The immersion period in TIS did not influence shoot multiplication rates of both species. However, proliferation medium (MS...

Author(s): Christine Stanly, Arvind Bhatt and Chan Lai Keng

July 2010

Establishment of proteome spot profiles and comparative analysis of the red and green phenotypes of ‘Bon Rouge’ pear (Pyrus communis L.) leaves

The ‘Bon Rouge’ pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivar is characterized by high levels of anthocyanins, the pigments responsible for the red leaf and red fruit skin phenotype. Branches of ‘Bon Rouge’ pear trees planted in commercial orchards often revert to the original green phenotype. The study aimed at establishing proteome maps of ‘Bon Rouge’ pear leaves and at comparing the...

Author(s): Ludivine A. Thomas, Majimi J. Sehata, Marlene G. du Preez, Jasper G. Rees and Bongani K. Ndimba

July 2010

Effects of some Iranian Trichoderma isolates on maize seed germination and seedling vigor

Trichoderma species are commonly used as biological control agents against phytopathogenic fungi and some of their isolates are able to improve plant growth. In the current study, we evaluated some Iranian Trichoderma isolate cultural filtrates as well as their direct effect on seed germination and seedling vigor of maize (Zea mays L. cultivar B73); they are Trichoderma harzianum T...

Author(s): Behzad Hajieghrari

July 2010

Generalized height-diameter models for Populus tremula L. stands

Using permanent sample plot data, selected tree height and diameter functions were evaluated for their predictive abilities for Populus tremula stands in Turkey. Two sets of models were evaluated. The first set included five models for estimating height as a function of individual tree diameter; the second set also included six models for estimating height as a function of individual tree diameter and some...

Author(s): Nuray Mısır

July 2010

Multiplex polymerase chain reaction for detection and characterization of shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC)

Escherichia coli is ubiquitous in the cow's environment that is contaminated by feces, and it is also a frequent cause of bovine mastitis. Thus, the present study was targeted at the rapid detection and characterization of shiga toxigenic E. coli(STEC) in bovine fecal and milk samples. Twenty two strains of E. coli (39.29%) were isolated from 56 diarrheic calves, while only 5 strains (20.83%)...

Author(s): Moussa, I. M., Ashgan, M. H., Alwathnani, H. A., Mohamed, Kh. F. and Al-Doss, A. A.

July 2010

Phytochemical and antimicrobial studies on essential oils of some aromatic plants

The antimicrobial activity of the volatile constituents of five different plant essential oils, that is, Ocimum sanctum (leaves), Eucalyptus globulus (leaves), Mentha arvensis (leaves), Citrus lemon (fruit epicarp) and Citrus maxima (fruit epicarp) was evaluated in vitro against seven bacteria (Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtilis,Staphylococcus...

Author(s): R. R. Pandey, R. C. Dubey and S. Saini

July 2010

Effect of drying methods on the chemical composition of three species of fish (Bonga spp., Sardinella spp. and Heterotis niloticus)

Three methods of drying (oven, sun and smoke) were used to dry Bonga spp.,Sardinella spp. and Heterotis niloticus. The physico-chemical and minerals contents of the sample were determined using standard methods. Oven dried H. niloticus recorded the highest (16.42%) moisture content while the least moisture content 9.27% were obtained in oven-dried and sun-dried Sardinella sp....

Author(s): J. O. Akinneye, I. A. Amoo and O. O. Bakare

July 2010

The biochemical, textural and sensory properties of king scallop (Pecten maxinus) meats frozen at different characteristic freezing times

Post rigor scallop meats were frozen individually with characteristic freezing time of 19, 49, 89, 235, 555 and 1000 min (time to cool the thermal centre of the meats from -1 to -7°C). After freezing, the meats were thawed and their quality was evaluated with tests related to muscle integrity (β-hydroxy-acyl-coenzyme –A dehydrogenase activities in muscle extracts), freezing and thawing losses,...

Author(s): Maria Makri

July 2010

Effect of konjac flour incorporated with soy protein isolate on quality characteristics of reduced-fat chiffon cakes

Effect of konjac flour (0.5 and 1%) incorporated with soy protein isolate (SPI) (5 and 10%) against wheat flour on physical, chemical and sensory properties of reduced-fat chiffon cakes prepared with 50% vegetable oil replacement with water were investigated. The addition of konjac flour and SPI produced reduced-fat cakes with significantly lower (p < 0.05) in specific volume, but higher (p < 0.05) in weight...

Author(s): Adisak Akesowan

July 2010

Physiochemical composition and antioxidant activities of underutilized Mangifera pajang fruit

Underutilized plant species are defined by their unexploited economic potential, making them an appropriate focus for commercialization. The physiochemical composition and antioxidant activities of underutilized Mangifera pajang Kosterm fruit pulp and fruit juice powder were studied. The average kernel weight and length of M. pajang fruits was higher compared to Mangifera india. Chemical...

Author(s): Muhammad Ibrahim, K. Nagendra Prasad , Amin Ismail, Azrina Azlan and Azizah Abd Hamid

July 2010

Performance of parental genotypes and inheritance of Angular Leaf Spot (Phaeosariopsis griseola) resistance in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

Two studies, one on performance of six common bean parental genotypes and another on inheritance of resistance to Phaeosariopsis griseola (Pg) in the common bean were carried out in Malawi. Common bean entries namely; Chimbamba, Nasaka, RC 15, CAL 143 and Mexico 54 were evaluated on station in the 2004/2005 growing season at Bunda, Dedza, Ng'onga and Ntchenachena sites. The second study started by...

Author(s): Chataika, B. Y. E., Bokosi, J. M., Kwapata, M. B., Chirwa, R. M., Mwale, V. M., Mnyenyembe, P. and Myers, J. R.  

July 2010

Callus formation and organogenesis of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill, C.V. Omdurman) induced by thidiazuron

In vitro culture response was assessed in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. c. v. Omdurman) for optimum callus induction and plantlet regeneration. Callusinduction was achieved within seven to ten days directly on the cut surfaces of both hypocotyls and cotyledon explants cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA),...

Author(s): Magdoleen G. Osman, Elsadig A. Elhadi and Mutasim M. Khalafalla

July 2010

Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of the essential oil and methanol extracts of rhizoma Alpinia officinarum from China in vitro

This study was designed to examine the in vitro antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of rhizoma Alpinia officinarum (small galanga) from China. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and 46 constituents were identified. Methanol extract from rhizoma A. officinarum was fractionated by chromatography of silica gel using...

Author(s): Jinsong Zhang, Jianpeng Dou, Shouqin Zhang, Qing Liang and Qingwei Meng

July 2010

Simultaneous determination of aconitum alkaloids in rat body fluids by high-performance liquid chromatography

A sensitive, reliable and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method coupled with photodiode array detector (DAD) were developed for the simultaneous quantitative determination of aconitine, mesaconitine and hypaconitine in rat plasma and urine by optimizing the extraction, separation and analytical conditions. The analyses were chromatographed on a ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C18 column (150 mm ×...

Author(s): Wang Rui, Sun Yi-kun, Wang Yun and Qiao Yan-jiang

July 2010

Effects of different concentrations of sodium chloride on plant growth and glucosinolate content and composition in pakchoi

Pakchoi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis) is one of the most important Brassica vegetables in China, and the consumption of Brassicavegetables reduces the risk of cancer occurrence. The aim of this study was to investigate the contents and composition of glucosinolates in pakchoi shoots exposed to 0, 50 and 100 mM sodium chloride (NaCl) for two weeks. The results...

Author(s): Hu Keling and Zhu Zhujun,

July 2010

Attenuation of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats using zerumbone

Zerumbone is a natural compound isolated from the fresh rhizomes of Zingiberzerumbet. This bioactive compound has shown a chemo-preventive, anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activities. This study examines the effect of zerumbone on the extent of tissue damage in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. The rats received a single dose injection of 10 mg/kg cisplatin. Other groups of rats received...

Author(s): Mohamed Yousif Ibrahim, Ahmad Bustamam Hj Abdul, Tengku Azmi Tengku Ibrahim, Siddig Ibrahim AbdelWahab, Manal Mohamed Elhassanand Syam Mohan

July 2010

Evaluation of acute toxicity and the effect of single injected doses of zerumbone on the kidney and liver functions in Sprague Dawley rats

Zerumbone is a natural monosesquiterpene isolated from the rhizomes of Zingiberzerumbet Smith. This bioactive compound has been previously shown to have chemo-preventive, anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activities. This study was designed to determine the median lethal dose (LD50) of zerumbone and the effect of three different single doses of zerumbone below the LD50 on blood...

Author(s): Mohamed Yousif Ibrahim, Ahmad Bustamam Hj Abdul, Tengku Azmi Tengku Ibrahim, Siddig Ibrahim Abdelwahab, Manal Mohamed Elhassanand M. M. Syam

July 2010

Induction of apoptosis in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 by phytochemicals from Gmelina asiatica

Currently, breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in women. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop alternative therapeutic measures against this deadly disease. Many components from dietary or medicinal plants have been identified that possess substantial chemopreventive properties. India has unique plant varieties yet to be studied for anticancer components. Therefore,cytotoxicity...

Author(s): N. J. Merlin, V. Parthasarathy and T. R. Santhoshkumar

July 2010

Effects of AdR-siPTEN on learning capability, memory and extracellular signal-regulated kinase expression in hippocampus of rats with vascular dementia

This study investigated the effects of a recombinant adenovirus, AdR-siPTEN, on learning capability, memory and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) expression in the hippocampus of rats with vascular dementia (VD). VD was introduced via permanent bilateral common carotid artery ligation (2-VO) in rats. AdR-siPTEN recombinant adenovirus and unrelated control adenovirus AdRFP were independently injected into the...

Author(s): Yongqiong Wei, Lixue Chen, Jiying Zhou, Zhaofang Zeng, Chongbiao Shenand Zhiwei Cui

July 2010

Hymenoptera of Niğde province: Studies on Sphecidae fauna

The present study is based on 1240 specimens obtained from the field studies in the vicinity of Nigde province in Turkey between the years of 2006 - 2008. In fauna studies carried out in Niğde province between May 2006 - October 2008, the specimens of Sphecinae Latreille, 1802, Pempheredoninae Dahlbom, 1835,Astatianae Lepeletier, 1845, Crabroninae Latreille,...

Author(s): Ayla Tüzün and Serdar Yüksel

July 2010

Development of microsatellite markers for Helopeltis theivora waterhouse (Hemiptera: Miridae)

Helopeltis theivora is an important pest of cocoa, tea, mangoes and ornamental plants in Asia. In the effort to control this insect pest effectively, information on its population genetics is needed. Single locus DNA microsatellites are very efficient in being able to provide such information when they are used in the study of the population structures of organisms as they are co-dominant markers. As no such marker...

Author(s): Latip S. N. H., Muhamad R., Manjeri G. and Tan S. G.

July 2010

A new protocol for extraction of C0t-1 DNA from rice

C0t-1 DNA, enriched for repetitive DNA sequences, has been proved to be valuable in the studies of plant species differentiation and genome evolution. A new protocol to steadily obtain the aimed range of DNA fragments has been developed by shearing the genomic DNA with the digest system containing DNase Ι and DNA polymerase Ι. Comparison through fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)...

Author(s): Chen Yan#, Guan Li#, Liu Hong, Li Gang and Qin Rui #These authors contributed equally to this paper  

July 2010

The influence of population density and duration of breeding on broiler chickens productivity and profitability

Fattening of broiler chickens is a very specific production process characterized by intensive production principles, rapid increase in broilers, small consumption of food/kg of gain (feed conversion ratio) and a large production of broilers’ meat per square meter of surface. In order to increase the profitability of this production, the intention of farmers is to reduce the duration of production as well as...

Author(s): Sreten Mitrović, Vladan Đermanović, Mihailo Radivojević, Zoran Rajić, Dragić Živković, Đorđe Ostojić and Nikola Filipović

July 2010

Induction of mammary gland tumor in female Sprague-Dawley rats with LA7 cells

The current methods for tumor induction in breast cancer research animal models are time-consuming, hazardous, expensive, sometimes irreproducible and inconvenient. We successfully developed a new, simple and cost-effective method in developing solid mammary gland tumor in female Sprague-Dawley rat using LA7 rat mammary tumor cells. Tumors developed in 7- 8 weeks old rats within 6 to 8 days of subcutaneous injection of...

Author(s): Roghayeh Abbasalipourkabir, Arash Dehghan, Aref Salehzadeh, Fatemeh Shamsabadi and Rasedee Abdullah

July 2010

Effect of feeding graded levels of biscuit waste based diet on non-carcass components of Yankasa rams

Five experimental diets B0 (0%, control), B1 (25%), B2 (50%), B3 (75%) and B4 (100%) were formulated with combined biscuit waste and Leucaena leucocephalameals and fed to 20 Yankasa rams for 91 days to evaluate their effects on non-carcass components of the rams. The rams were slaughtered at the expiration of the experiment and non-carcass components were measured which included external and internal offals, blood,...

Author(s): E. S. Apata, O. O. Eniolorunda, K. A. Ojo and A. O. Okubanjo

July 2010

Effect of sex on meat quality characteristics of Qinchuan cattle

A total of 18 Qinchuan cattle, six intact males (IM), six castrated males (CM) and six females (FM), were used to investigate the effect of sex on the physicochemical characteristics (PCC) and fatty acid (FA) composition of the Longissimus dorsimuscle (LDM). Obvious sex differences were found in the PCC of LDM: the IM group had higher shear value, pH, drip and cooking losses, and contents of ash and hydroxyproline...

Author(s): Ying-Ying Zhang, Lin-Sen Zan, Hong-Bao Wang, Ya-Ping Xin, C. M. Adoligbe and J. A. Ujan