African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12218

Table of Content: 20 December 2010; 9(51)

December 2010

Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the aqueous extract of the root bark of Combretum sericeum in rodents

  Combretum sericeum (Combretacae) is used traditionally in Northern Nigeria for the treatment of fever. In this study, the activities of the aqueous extract of the root bark of this plant against nociception and inflammation were investigated in mice and rats. The studies were carried out using acetic acid writhing, hot plate algesia and carrageenan induced inflammation in rats. The results showed that...

Author(s):   Sini, J. M., Yaro, A. H., Ayanwuyi, L. O., Aiyelero, O. M., Mallum, S. M. and Gamaniel, K. S.  

December 2010

Osmotic potential of Zinnia elegans plant material affects the yield and morphology of tracheary elements produced in vitro

The Zinnia elegans cell suspension culture is excellent for xylogenesis studies at the cellular and molecular level, due to the high and synchronous in vitrodifferentiation of tracheary elements (TEs). The percentage TE differentiation (%TE) in the culture is, however, influenced by a number of factors before and during cell differentiation. One of the factors that is potentially important but has not...

Author(s):   Peter Twumasi,, Jan Schel and Wim van Ieperen  

December 2010

Molecular cloning of S1 glycoprotein gene of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) serotype 793/B in secretory Pichia pastoris vector

  n vitro protein expression is an important method of obtaining large amounts of viral proteins to investigate their biological properties. The S1 glycoprotein of infectious bronchitis virus, due to its effective immune-dominant role is an appropriate candidate for production of recombinant vaccine against infectious bronchitis disease. In this study, the S1 gene fragment of infectious bronchitis...

Author(s): Asadpour, L., Goudarzi, H., Keyvanfar, H., Shoushtari, A. H., Seyfi Abad Shapouri, M. R. and Eshrat Abadi, F.  

December 2010

Extraction of low molecular weight RNA from Citrus trifolita tissues for microRNA Northern blotting and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)

  The study of microRNA (miRNA), a component of low molecular weight RNA (LMW RNA), has received increasing attention in recent years. A critical prerequisite in miRNA studies is acquisition of high quality LMW RNA. LMW RNA is generally obtained from total RNA or from total nucleic acids solutions. Most traditional methods for LMW RNA isolation involve many steps and chemical reagents which upon degradation may...

Author(s):   Changnian Song, Xue Cao, Korir Kibet Nicholas, Chen Wang, Xiaoying Li, Xicheng Wang and Jinggui Fang  

December 2010

Obtaining phenolic acids from cell cultures of various Artemisia species

  Plant cell cultures represent a high valuable source for the production of bioactive secondary metabolites which can be used in food industry, medicine and cosmetic industry. In our study, we focused on obtaining phenolic acids from plant cell cultures. We compared cell cultures obtained from nine plant species of two families with a high potential for the production of phenolic substances. The most...

Author(s): Heidi Riedel, Zhenzhen Cai, Onur Kütük  and Iryna Smetanska,  

December 2010

Induced response in Schima superba: Effects of early-season herbivory on leaf traits and subsequent insect attack

  Physical, nutritional and allelochemical reactions generally occur in plant leaves in response to herbivory, and such responses can reduce to a certain extent, the performance and/or preference of subsequent herbivores. This study gave an additional evidence to the induced defense theory through the simulated herbivory inSchima superba, one of the common dominant trees in subtropical evergreen broadleaf...

Author(s):   Zhiguo Liu, Yongli Cai, , Yan Fang, Jun Jing, , Kai Li,  

December 2010

The response of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) genotypes to callus induction, regeneration and different concentrations of the selective agent (geneticin -418)

  Two commercial cultivars (CPF-245 and CPF-237) and three advanced lines (CSSG-668, S-2003US633, S-2003US114) of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarium) grown in Punjab, Pakistan were evaluated for their potential to induce callus, embryogenic callus and regeneration. Cultivar CSSG-668 was found to be the best genotype yielding maximum embryogenic callus and regeneration whereas cultivar CPF-245 exhibited lowest...

Author(s):   Ghulam Raza, Kazim Ali, Zahid Mukhtar, Shahid Mansoor, Muhammad Arshad and Shaheen  Asad  

December 2010

Rate of re-infection of tissue culture-derived Latin American and East and Southern African cassava genotypes by mosaic disease

  The rate of reinfection by cassava mosaic disease (CMD) in initially virus-free cassava plants of two Latin American and twelve East and Southern African cassava genotypes grown was studied under high disease pressure conditions. An improved clone, TMS 4(2)1425, from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture was used as check. The virus-free plants had been produced through meristem-tip culture and...

Author(s): E. B. Okorogri, V. O. Adetimirin, G. Ssemakula, B. Odu and A. G. O. Dixon

December 2010

Morphological diversity of Kenyan papaya germplasm

  Papaya is one of the major fruit crops of the tropical regions of the world. It shows considerable phenotypic variation in morphological and horticultural traits that can be utilized in its genetic improvement. In Kenya, wide range of papaya germplasm exists and has not been characterized. Therefore, there is difficulty in differentiating the papaya accessions in the different regions of Kenya....

Author(s):   G. O. Asudi, F. K. Ombwara, F. K. Rimberia, A. B. Nyende, E. M. Ateka, L. S. Wamocho, D. Shitanda, and A. Onyango  

December 2010

Studies on the benthic macroinvertebrates diversity species as bio-indicators of environmental health in Bahrekan Bay (Northwest of Persian Gulf)

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the seasonal diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates in the Bahrekan bay (situated in the northwest of the Persian Gulf) using diversity and evenness indices. Physiochemical parameters of water, grain size analysis and percentage total organic matter (TOM) of sediment were assessed during four seasons. Hence, the samples of benthic macroinvertebrate and sediment were obtained...

Author(s): Maryam Mohammadi Roozbahani, Seyed Mohammad Bagher Nabavi, Parvin Farshchi and Abdolrahman Rasekh

December 2010

Growth response and heavy metals tolerance of Axonopus affinis, inoculated with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria

  Different microorganisms have been used for bioremediation based on their resistance and ability to sequester heavy metals. The use of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) for bioremediation of these contaminants has been successful. A PGPR isolated from hydrocarbons-contaminated soil identified asBacillus sp., by microbiological and molecular tools and characterized as heavy metal tolerant by...

Author(s):   Daniela Labra Cardón, Silvano Montes Villafán, Aída Rodríguez Tovar, Sandra Pérez Jiménez, L. Angélica Guerrero Zúñiga, Myriam A. Amezcua Allieri, Néstor O. Pérez, and Angélica Rodríguez Dorantes  

December 2010

Use of remote sensing and molecular markers to detect toxic cyanobacterial hyperscum crust: A case study on Lake Hartbeespoort, South Africa

  In this study, we monitored the formation of cyanobacterial hyperscum and crust formation in Lake Hartbeespoort using satellite images and ground monitoring. The hyperscum that formed near the reservoir wall was characterised by a distinctive white surface layer of crust. Hyperscum is the result of exposure of the cells to high radiation, inflicting irreversible damage to the genetic constitution of the upper...

Author(s):   P. J. Oberholster, and A. M. Botha  

December 2010

Biosorptive removal of Hg(II) ions by Rhizopus oligosporus produced from corn-processing wastewater

  In this study, corn processing wastewater was used as a new low-cost substrate to produce Rhizopus oligosporus. Dried biomass of R. oligosporus was evaluated as a biosorbent for treatment of synthetically contaminated waters with Hg(II) ions. The biosorption process was carried out in a batch process and the effects of contact time (1 to 48 h), initial pH (2.0 to 7.0), initial metal ion...

Author(s): H. Duygu Ozsoy

December 2010

Composition and evaluation of the lethality of Lippia gracilis essential oil to adults of Biomphalaria glabrata and larvae of Artemia salina

  Lippia gracilis essential oil (LGEO) was evaluated for its molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata and toxicity to brine shrimps (Artemia salina). L. gracilis was collected from the city Tomar do Gerú- Sergipe, Brazil. The LGEO were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The values of LC10, LC50 and LC90 were...

Author(s): Tatiana V. Teles, Rangel R. Bonfim, Péricles B. Alves, Arie. F. Blank, Hugo C. R. Jesus, Lucindo J. Quintans-Jr, Mairim R. Serafini, Leonardo R. Bonjardim and Adriano A. S. Araújo

December 2010

Factors affecting delivery and transient expression of gusA gene in Malaysian indica rice MR 219 callus via biolistic gun system

Author(s):   Zuraida A. R., Rahiniza K., Nurul Hafiza M. R., Suri Roowi, Zamri Z. and Sreeramanan Subramaniam  

December 2010

Utilization of bitter vegetable leaves (Gongronema latifolium, Vernonia amygdalina) and Garcinia kola extracts as substitutes for hops in sorghum beer production

  Sorghum beer was brewed using extracts of ‘utasi’ leaf (Gongronema latifolium), bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) and bitter kola (Garcinia kola) to impact bitter taste and flavour as substitutes for hops used for beer production. The physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the beer samples were evaluated. The results showed that ‘utasi’ leaf, bitter leaf and...

Author(s):   Adenuga, W., Olaleye, O. N. and Adepoju, P. A.  

December 2010

Metabolic markers as possible diagnostic tools to distinguish between Gram positive and Gram negative septicaemia in baboons

  Septicemia is a disease with high mortality and morbidity.  Most patients die within 48 h after infection because directed treatment can only start after the bacterium is identified as gram positive or gram negative.  This may take up to 72 h.  Early identification of the causative pathogen can therefore decrease the high mortality rate following infection. The aim was to identify possible...

Author(s):   Tania Scheepers, Jan L. du Plessis and Herculaas F. Kotzé  

December 2010

Sequence analysis of β-esterase isoenzymes related to fertility changeover in TsCMS7311 of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis)

  In order to explore the mechanism of temperature regulating fertility transformation in the thermo-sensitive male sterile of Chinese cabbage (TsCMS7311) (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis), the paper studied the related β-esterase isoenzymes from the gene expression. The β-esterase isoenzymes related to fertility changeover in TsCMS7311 were purified by one-dimensional and two-dimensional...

Author(s):   Shaoli Zhang, Lugang Zhang, Mingke Zhang and Maixia Hui  

December 2010

Effect of two cytokinins in combination with acetic acid α-naphthalene on yams (Dioscorea spp.) genotypes’ response to in vitro morphogenesis

  The effect of two growth regulator combinations was studied on the morphogenesisin vitro of 3 genotypes of yams (Kounondakou, Gnon-boya and RB 89579). Benzyl aminopurin (BAP) and zeatin (ZEAT) were tested, respectively at a concentration of 0.5 mg/l with the galzy glutamine basic medium containing naphtalene acetic acid (NAA) (0.5 mg/l). Stem fragments were used as explants. The number of...

Author(s):   C. Ahanhanzo, Ch. B. Gandonou, A. Agbidinoukoun, A. Dansi and C. Agbangla  

December 2010

Energetics of binary mixed culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas fluorescence growth on phenol in aerobic chemostat culture

    Bioenergetic analysis of the growth of the binary mixed culture (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas fluorescence) on phenol chemostat culture was carried out. The data were checked for consistency using carbon and available electron balances. When more than the minimum number of variables are measured, and measurement errors are taken into account, the results of...

Author(s): Samuel E. Agarry, Bamidele O. Solomon+ and Stephen K. Layokun  

December 2010

Seasonal changes of invertebrate fauna associated with Cystoseira barbata facies of Southeastern Black Sea coast

  This research was carried out to determine the invertebrate fauna associated withCystoseira barbata facies distributed in the upper-infralittoral zone of the Southeastern Black Sea coasts and their bioecological features. The investigations were seasonally performed at depths of 0 to 3 m in 5 different stations chosen in the Southeastern Black Sea from July 2005 to May 2006. As a result of the study, a...

Author(s): Ahmet Mutlu Gozler, Ulgen Kopuz and Ertugrul Agirbas  

December 2010

Trace metals in some benthic fishes of the Ikpoba river dam, Benin City, Nigeria

  The concentration of iron (Fe), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), cadmuim (Cd), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) in two benthic fish species (Mormyrops deliciosus and Mormyrus macrophthalmus netted from two locations (Okhoro and Low lift pump sites) on the Ikpoba River Dam, Benin City, Nigeria were determined using atomic absorption spectrometric technique. Sediment and water...

Author(s): Oronsaye, J. A. O., Wangboje, O. M. and Oguzie, F. A.  

December 2010

In vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of Leonurus cardiaca subsp. Persicus, Grammosciadium platycarpum and Onosma demawendicum

  Antioxidant activity of the aerial parts of Leonurus cardiaca subsp. Persicus,Grammosciadium platycarpum and Onosma demawendicum were investigated employing six in vitro assay systems. IC50 for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity was in the order: O. demawendicum (221 ± 11.7) > L. cardiaca (144 ± 12.1)...

Author(s): Ebrahimzadeh, M. A., Nabavi, S. F., Nabavi, S. M., Eslami, B. andAsgarirad, H.

December 2010

Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of water extract from Ipomoea asarifolia Desr (Convolvulaceae)

Ipomoea asarifolia (IA) (Desr) (family: Convolvulacea) is an herb, with a hairless succulent perennial stem, trailing on the ground usually several meters long. The various parts of this plant are used locally in the alleviation of inflammation and painful conditions. This study was done to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the water extract of the plant in experimental animal models...

Author(s):   U. Lawal, H. Ibrahim, A. Agunu and Y. Abdulahi  

December 2010

Effects of varying levels of n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma fatty acid composition and prostanoid synthesis in pregnant rats

This study investigated the effects of  varying dietary levels of n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma fatty acid composition and prostanoid synthesis in pregnant rats. Four  groups consisting of seven rats per group  of  non pregnant  rats  were fed diets with either a very low n-6:n-3 ratio of 50% soybean oil (SBO): 50% cod liver oil (CLO) 1:1 group , a low  ratio of ...

Author(s):   Amira A. B. K⊃, A. B. Z Zuki⊃, Y. M Goh⊃, M. M Noordin⊃ and M. Ebrahimi⊃