African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12218

Table of Content: 20 September 2010; 9(38)

September 2010

Volatile fatty acids production in ruminants and the role of monocarboxylate transporters: A review

Monocarboxylates commonly referred to as short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are metabolized to different extents by the epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract. They are absorbed along different segments of the gastrointestinal tract and constitute a significant amount of energy in ruminants. Monocarboxylates play a central role in cellular metabolism and metabolic communication between tissues....

Author(s): Aluwong, Tagang, Kobo, Patricia Ishaku and Abdullahi, Abdullahi

September 2010

Treatment of wastewater from rubber industry in Malaysia

Presently, Malaysia is the third largest rubber producer in the world, whereby the rubber industry is an economically and socially significant industry. Rubber industry consumes large volumes of water, uses chemicals and other utilities and produces enormous amounts of wastes and effluent. Discharge of untreated rubber effluent to waterways resulted in water pollution that affected the human health. With a new global...

Author(s): Mitra Mohammadi, Hasfalina Che Man, Mohd Ali Hassan and Phang Lai Yee

September 2010

Application of SRAP in the genetic diversity of Tricholoma matsutake in northeastern China

Tricholoma matsutake is an ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungus that produces economically important mushrooms. The study firstly applied SRAP technique into genetic diversity of T. matsutake. A total of 129 strains from 13 geographical locations in northeastern China, were amplified by using selected 12 primer pairs. The polymorphic band number amplified by each primer pair ranged from 7 to 13. In total 154...

Author(s): Dalong Ma, Guoting Yang, Liqiang Mu and Yuting Song

September 2010

Preparation and identification of monoclonal antibodies against humanin

To generate and characterize a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against humanin (HN), BALB/c mice were immunized with the purified pet-44a-HN in adjuvant and their splenic lymphocytes were fused with myeloma SP2/0 cells. The hybridoma cell lines were screened for HN-specific antibodies by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and anti-HN mAb-producing hybridoma clones were obtained using a limiting dilution...

Author(s): Yuan Yuan, Min Yuan, Ben-yan Luo, Lin-fu Zhou and Zhi Chen

September 2010

Genetic structure and diversity within and among six populations of Capparis decidua (forssk.) edgew. from Saudi Arabia

Capparis decidua is a rangeland plant species growing in isolated populations in Saudi Arabia. Genetic diversity within and among six populations (Madina, Farasan island, Hawayer Assos, Khor Assos, Raudhat Khuraim, and Taif) of C. decidua was studied using RAPD technique.  Of the 25 random primers were used, eighteen (18) primers generated discernible and reproducible bands.  A total...

Author(s): Ahmed L. Abdel-Mawgood, Jernej Jakse, A.A Al-Doss and Abdulaziz M. Assaeed

September 2010

Optimization of fermentation medium for nisin production from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis using response surface methodology (RSM) combined with artificial neural network-genetic algorithm (ANN-GA)

Nisin is a bacteriocin approved in more than 50 countries as a safe natural food preservative. Response surface methodology (RSM) combined with artificial neural network-genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) was employed to optimize the fermentation medium for nisin production. Plackett-Burman design (PBD) was used for identifying the significant components in the fermentation medium. After that, the path of steepest ascent method...

Author(s): Wei-liang Guo, Yi-bo Zhang, Jia-hui Lu, Li-yan Jiang, Li-rong Teng, Yao Wang and Yan-chun Liang

September 2010

Genetic analysis of fertility restoration genes for WA-type cytoplasmic male sterility in Iranian restorer rice line DN-33-18

Cytoplasmic genetic male sterility system can be used to exploit heterosis in grain crops only when the effective restorer lines are available. Crosses between an Iranian CMS line Neda A with three newly developed lines DN-33-1, DN-33-18 and DN-32-6 showed that only the cross of Neda-A/DN-33-18 had more than 80% pollen and grain fertility in F1 generation. The inheritance of fertility restoration in F2population of...

Author(s): Gh. A. Nematzadeh and G. Kiani

September 2010

Study of fecal bacterial diversity in Yunnan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti) using phylogenetic analysis of cloned 16S rRNA gene sequences

The bacterial diversity in fecal samples from Yunnan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti) was investigated by constructed 16S rRNA gene clone library and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. As a result, a total of 156 representative clones for each profile, comprising nearly full length sequences (with a mean length of 1.5 kb) were sequenced and submitted to an on-line similarity search and...

Author(s): Changfei Wu, Fang Yang, Runchi Gao, Zunxi Huang,, Bo Xu,,  Yanyan Dong, Tao Hong and Xianghua Tang,,

September 2010

Quality assessment of plantain (Musa paradisiaca L.) as affected by different ripening methods

There are increasing reports of food poisoning due to preservatives used for the processing of certain food items, especially in developing countries of Africa. Also, very scanty information is available on the effect of these preservatives on the nutritional status of the food being processed and preserved. This experiment therefore reports on the quality assessment of plantain (Musa paradisiaca L.) as affected by...

Author(s): M. B. Adewole and R. W. Duruji

September 2010

LeERF1 improves tolerance to drought stress in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and activates downstream stress-responsive genes

Ethylene responsive factors (ERFs) are important transcriptional regulators involved in plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. In this study, the function of the LeERF1 gene in sense- and antisense-LeERF1 transgenic tomato plants was analyzed. The results demonstrated that overexpression of LeERF1 in tomato plants enhanced tolerance to drought stress. The LeERF1-overexpressing...

Author(s): Chengwen Lu, Yingcong Li, Anjun Chen, Ling Li, Jinhua Zuo, Huiqin Tian, Yunbo Luo and Benzhong Zhu

September 2010

Pomological and phenological characteristics of promising rose hip (Rosa) genotypes

This study was carried out to determine pomological and phenological characteristics of eleven promising rose hip (Rosa) genotypes chosen from wild populations in Tokat region of northern Anatolia, Turkey. Plants were propagated by cuttings and planted in 2000 at the research station of the Horticultural Department of Gaziosmanpasa University, Tokat, Turkey. Fruit characteristics and phenological observations were...

Author(s): Mehmet Güneş

September 2010

The effect of gibberellic acid applications on the cracking rate and fruit quality in the ‘0900 Ziraat’ sweet cherry cultivar

This study was conducted to determine the effects of different gibberellic acid (GA3)doses (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 ppm) on the fruit quality and cracking rate in the ‘0900 Ziraat’ sweet cherry cultivar. In this study, different GA3 doses affected significantly (p < 0.05) the most important characteristics of fruit such as fruit weight, fruit firmness and cracking rate determining the marketable...

Author(s): Adnan N. Yildirim and Fatma Koyuncu

September 2010

Effects of strip and full-width tillage on soil carbon IV oxide-carbon (CO2-C) fluxes and on bacterial and fungal populations in sunflower

In strip tillage system, planting lines are cultivated while the inter-row spaces are left undisturbed. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of strip tillage andfull-width tillage treatments on soil carbon IV oxide-carbon (CO2-C) fluxes, bacterial and fungal populations in growing period of sunflower (Helianthus annus). A row-crop rotary hoe with C type blades was used to create three strip...

Author(s): Serdar Bilen, Ahmet Çelik and Sefa Altıkat

September 2010

Effects of different organic materials and chemical fertilizers on nutrition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) in organic arboriculture

This study was conducted under greenhouse conditions to investigate the effects of applied nutrients such as six organic materials (gyttja, alsil, humic acid, sea moss, straw and peat) and two chemical fertilizers (15-15-15, and 20-20-0) with different dosages on nutrient uptaking ability of one-year old and 7 cm long pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) trees by analyzing nutrient (mineral) contents of pistachio (P....

Author(s): Ali Rıza Demirkiran and Mine Çiğdem Cengiz

September 2010

Evaluation of chemical and fermentation parameters during the preparation of wine from berry (Maesobotyra standii)

A milky red wine was produced from locally sourced berry (Maesobotyra standii) in Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria using innate wild yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)augmented with baker’s yeast activated with 2, 5 and 10% (w/v) sugar solutions inactivated yeast: fruit extract ratios of 1:2 and 1:3. It was observed that there was an inverse proportional relationship between percentage (%) titratable acidity and pH as...

Author(s): O. E. Idise and E. Osabohien

September 2010

Optimizing culture conditions for the production of endo-β-1,4-glucanase by Aspergillus awamori strain Vietnam Type Culture Collection (VTCC)-F099

In the present study, twenty six strains of Aspergillus awamori from the Vietnam Type Culture Collection (Institute of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vietnam University Hanoi) were used for the endoglucanase production by growing at 37°C in the growth medium. Result showed that A. awamori strain VTCC-F099 produced the highest level of endo β-1,4-glucanase in the growth medium, pH 6.5, at...

Author(s): Van Tuan Nguyen and Dinh Thi Quyen

September 2010

Screening for the optimal induction parameters for periplasmic producing interferon-α2b in Escherichia coli

Screening for optimum induction parameters to improve the production of periplasmic interferon-α2b (PrIFN-α2b) by recombinant Escherichia coli was conducted using shake flask culture. Recombinant E. coli Rosetta-gami 2(DE3) harboring the plasmid pET26b containing IFN-α2b gene under the control of the T7lac promoter was used, where the induction was accomplished by isopropyl...

Author(s): Siti Nor Ani Azaman, Ramakrishnan Nagasundara Ramanan, Joo Shun Tan, Raha Abdul Rahim, Mohd Puad Abdullah and Arbakariya B. Ariff,

September 2010

Optimization, economization and characterization of cellulase produced by marine Streptomyces ruber

Cellulase is a very important enzyme due to its great industrial applications. Six marine strains of actinomycetes were screened for their carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) productivity. Streptomyces ruber was chosen to be the best producing strain. The highest enzyme production (25.6 U/ml) was detected at pH 6 and 40°C after 7 days of incubation. Plackett-Burman design was applied to optimize the different...

Author(s): Nermeen A. El-Sersy, Hanan Abd-Elnaby, Gehan M. Abou-Elela, Hassan A. H. Ibrahim and Nabil M. K. El-Toukhy

September 2010

The antibacterial potential of the seaweeds (Rhodophyceae) of the Strait of Gibraltar and the Mediterranean Coast of Morocco

The antibacterial potential of the seaweeds (Rhodophyceae) of the Strait of Gibraltar and the Mediterranean Coast of Morocco

Author(s): Bouhlal Rhimou, Riadi Hassane, Martínez José and Bourgougnon Nathalie

September 2010

Effect of alternating and direct currents on Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth in vitro

Eradication of pathogenic bacteria from important part of our life such as dental tools, foods and wounds is necessary. Based on the effect of natural selection, these bacteria become resistant to antibiotics. In some cases such as the section where burnt are treated in the hospital, we observe high rate of mortality as well as high numbers of resistant bacteria. In order to solve these problems, electrical stimulation...

Author(s): Hamid Maadi⊃,⊃, Morteza Haghi⊃,⊃, Reza Delshad⊃, Haleh Kangarloo⊃, Mohammad Ali Mohammadnezhady⊃,⊃ and Gholam Reza Hemmatyar⊃

September 2010

Production of Extracellular Aspartic Protease in Submerged Fermentation with Mucor mucedo DSM 809

Fungal milk-clotting enzymes have gained value as bovine Chymosin substitutes in the cheese industry. In this work, the effects of culture conditions on the production of extracellular milk clotting enzymes from Mucor mucedo DSM 809 in submerged fermentation were studied. The maximum activity was observed after 48 h of cultivation at 24°C in Erlenmeyer flasks. The optimized initial pH and shaking speed for...

Author(s): Sirma Yegin, Marcelo Fernández-Lahore, Ulgar Guvenc and Yekta Goksungur

September 2010

Cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid and betulinic acid acetate isolated from Melaleuca cajuput on human myeloid leukemia (HL-60) cell line

The cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid (BA), isolated from Melaleuca cajuput a Malaysian plant and its four synthetic derivatives were tested for their cytotoxicity in various cell line or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by 3-[4,5-dimethylthizol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Betulinic acid acetate (BAAC) was most effective than other betulinic acid derivatives. It had...

Author(s): N. H. Faujan, N. B. Alitheen, S. K. Yeap, A. M. Ali, A. H. Muhajir, F. B. H. Ahmad

September 2010

Chemical control of blossom blight disease of sarpagandha caused by Colletotrichum capsici

Sarpagandha (Rauvolfia serpentina Benth) is grown in different parts of India and its adjoining countries for its root which is the chief source of several important alkaloids like ajmalicine, ajmaline, isoajmaline, rauvolfinine, reserpine and serpentine. Blossom blight caused by Colletotrichum capsici is one of the most serious diseases of sarpagandha in the North Indian plains. Eight fungicides, namely...

Author(s): R. S. Shukla, Abdul-Khaliq and M. Alam

September 2010

Key region of laminin receptor 1 for interaction with human period 1

The 67 kDa laminin receptor 1 (Lamr1) is a novel protein that interacts with human circadian clock protein period 1 (hPer1). We confirmed the interaction between hPer1 and complete Lamr1 (295 amino acids) through yeast two-hybrid system in the present study. And we identified the interaction between hPer1 and hLamr11-190/hLamr1201-295 with yeast two-hybrid system. The results showed that hPer1 could interact with two...

Author(s): Li Chang,, Yuhui Wang, Yanyou Liu, Zhou Jiang, Bangxing Qiao, Jing Xiao, Huiling Guo, Zhengrong Wang

September 2010

Detection of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense in Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Diptera: Glossinidae) and Stomoxys flies using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique in southern Sudan

Ethanol-fixed entire bodies of the tsetse fly, Glossina fuscipes fuscipes, and unidentified stable flies, Stomoxys spp., collected from near Juba town, southern Sudan, were tested for Trypanozoon trypanosomes infections using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique for the first time in Sudan. The crude target DNA sequences were extracted by incubation of entire flies in Nonindet PCR template...

Author(s): Y. O. Mohammed, M. M. Mohamed-Ahmed, T. K. Lubna and I. E. El Rayah

September 2010

Biosorption of mercury by capsulated and slime layer-forming Gram -ve bacilli from an aqueous solution

The biosorption of mercury by two locally isolated Gram-ve bacilli: Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumonia (capsulated) and slime layer forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa, was characterized. Mercury adsorption was found to be influenced by the pH value of the biosorption solution, initial metal concentration, amount of the dried biomass and contact time. The optimum biosorption capacity of K....

Author(s): Saleh M. Al-Garni, Khaled M. Ghanem and Ahmed S. Ibrahim

September 2010

Improvement of gas chromatographic analysis for organic acids and solvents in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation from sweet sorghum juice

Modern development for gas chromatographic peak recognition of organic acids and organic solvents in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was investigated under different temperature programmes. Either propanol or iso-butanol was used as an internal standard. The results showed that short retention time and fair recognition peak of the compounds were obtained under the following column temperature programme: 10...

Author(s): Atsadawut Areesirisuk, Lakkana Laopaiboon, Naulchan Khongsay and Pattana Laopaiboon,

September 2010

Anti-tumor activity of triterpenoid-rich extract from bamboo shavings (Caulis bamfusae in Taeniam)

Bamboo shavings are a kind of Chinese traditional medicine, which have been certificated as a material of functional food by the Ministry of Health in China. The anti-tumor activities of a triterpenoid-rich extract of bamboo shavings (EBS) and its main component, friedelin were evaluated in the present study. It was proved that EBS could inhibit the growth of P388 and A549 cancer cell lines effectively by SRB and MTT...

Author(s): Baiyi Lu, Lianliang Liu, Xiaowei Zhen, Xiaoqin Wu and Ying Zhang

September 2010

Preventive and therapeutic effects of antler collagen on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats

The present study was aimed at evaluating the preventive and therapeutic effects of collagen extracted from Sika deer velvet on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. Histomorphometric indices, serum biochemical parameters and biomechanical properties were measured in ovariectomized rats treated with/without antler collagen and in sham-operated rats. Compared with the ovariectomized group, significant elevation in the...

Author(s): Yinqing Li, Yu Zhao, Renneng Tang and Xiaobo Qu

September 2010

Evaluation of subchronic dietary fumonisin B1 on nutrient digestibility and growth performance of rats

Fumonisin B1 (FB1), a toxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides (Fusarium moniliforme) and other Fusarium species which grow on maize worldwide, has been documented to cause various physiological responses in animals. Thirty-nine female Wistar rats randomly assigned to three treatment groups were used to assess the effects of dietary FB1 on nutrient utilization and growth performance....

Author(s): Gbore, F. A., Yinusa, R. I. and Salleh, B.