African Journal of
Biotechnology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12212

Table of Content: 21 June 2010; 9(25)

June 2010

Phytoremediation of heavy metals with several efficiency enhancer methods

  It is no doubt that the contamination of water, air and soil has worsened, and this occurs as a result of the increase in population. However, the need for remediation technologies has to be seriously considered. Phytoremediation is one of the remediation techniques with a relatively slow procedure and low efficiency. This review covers some of the biological, chemical, physical, physico-chemical and...

Author(s): Karami, Ali and Shamsuddin, Zulkifli Hj.

June 2010

Isolation and characterization of developmentally regulated novel target site from embryonic chick heart

  Differential gene expression is the primary determinant of numerous biological processes such as cell differentiation, proliferation, organogenesis, tumor progression and apoptosis. In that context, regulatory proteins play pivotal roles and determine cell fate in all physiological conditions of differentiation, development and disease. As these regulatory proteins are present in extremely small amount in...

Author(s): S. Neha, Shyamal K. Goswami and R. Vibha

June 2010

Molecular Cloning and Expression of Bacterial Mercuric Reductase Gene

 In order to characterize the bacterial mercuric reductase (merA) gene, mercury resistant (Hgr) Escherichia coli strains have been isolated from various mercury contaminated sites of India. Their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Hg and zone of inhibition for different antibiotics were measured, and finally mer operon was localized by transforming isolated E. coli plasmid...

Author(s): Md. Zeyaullah, Shafiul Haque, Gowher Nabi, Kripa N. Nand and Arif Ali

June 2010

Genetic transformation of Physcomitrella patens mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

  A simple efficient protocol for introducing exogenous gene from Agrobacteriumtumfaciens into Physcomitrella patens was established. When the gametophores of gametophytes about 12 leaves were inoculated into the wells of PP3 medium at 25°C under the continuous light energy of 30 μmol m-2 s-1 from cool-white fluorescent lamps, they grew up to form many buds at about 11 days, then...

Author(s): Lin-Hui Li, Jun Yang, Hui Lan Qiu and Yan Ying Liu

June 2010

Infectious drug resistance plasmid study in Salmonella enterica isolates of domestic animals and lizards from some south western states of Nigeria

 Twenty-three Salmonella enterica isolated from domestic animals and lizards in Oyo and Ogun States of Nigeria between April 2005 and August 2007 were studied for infectious drug resistance and possible transfer using Escherichia coli 365K12 resistant to 200 µg/ml streptomycin as sensitive recipient. Nineteen (79%) of the isolates  were from poultry, 2 (8%) from cattle and 2 (8%) from...

Author(s): A. O. Ogunleye, A. T. P. Ajuwape  and  A. I. Adetosoye

June 2010

Production and molecular characterization of wide cross derivatives in rice

  The reduced genetic variability of modern rice varieties (Oryza sativa L.) is of great concern because it reduces the possibilities of genetic gain in breeding programs. Introgression lines (ILs) containing genetic fragment from wild rice can be used to obtain new improved cultivars. The objective of the present study was to develop ILs from the cross between O. sativa x O....

Author(s): F. M. Abbasi, A. H. Shah, R. Masood, R. Mujadad, F. Nawaz,   M Sajid, M. Afzal, A. Majid N. Akhtar and I. Bukhari

June 2010

Cloning and characterization of the densoviruses susceptible gene +nsd-2 in the silkworm, Bombyx mori

  Recently, a silkworm gene responsible for the susceptibility to BmDNV-2 (a parvo-like virus) has been discovered and designated as +nsd-2, which encodes a 12-pass transmembrane protein. BmDNV-Z, isolated in Zhenjiang of China, has a high homology with BmDNV-2 in serological characteristics and genome structure. However, it is still uncertain whether +nsd-2 is also responsible for...

Author(s): Xiaogang Li, Hengchuan Xia, Yuanqing He, Lu Gao, Yang Zhou, Guohui Li, Keping Chen, and Qin Yao

June 2010

Differential expression of early viral gene BmORF51 in Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus infection of resistant and susceptible silkworms

  Open reading frame 51 of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (Bm51) is a homologue of autographa californica multiple NPV ORF63. In this study, the expression profiles of Bm51 in the resistant strain NB and the susceptible strain 306 were characterized, and Bm51 gene was amplified from BmNPV genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cloned into Escherichia coli expressionvector...

Author(s): Feng Lin, Qin Yao, Huiqing Chen, Yang Zhou and KePing Chen

June 2010

The anthocyanidin synthase gene from sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam): Cloning, characterization and tissue expression analysis

  Anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) catalyzes the biosynthesis of anthocyanidin, which is a late gene for anthocyanin biosynthesis. In order to investigate the role of anthocyanidin synthase in anthocyanin biosynthesis, we cloned and characterized the anthocyanidin synthase gene from purple-flesh sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas(L.) Lam) Yuzi 263, which was designated as IbANS. The cDNA fragment of the ANS gene of...

Author(s):

June 2010

Detection of some virulence factors in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis in Iran

  Mastitis is one of the common diseases of dairy cattle and an inflammatory response of the mammary glands tissue. Mastitis causes considerable loss to the dairy industry. Among several bacterial pathogens that can cause mastitis,Staphylococcus aureus is probably the most lethal agent because it causes chronic and deep infection in the mammary glands that is extremely difficult to be cured. The...

Author(s): Hassan Momtaz, Ebrahim Rahimi and Elahe Tajbakhsh

June 2010

Taxonomic significance of leaf epidermal anatomy of selected Persicaria Mill. species of family Polygonaceae from Pakistan

  Leaf epidermal anatomy of selected Persicaria Mill. species of the family Polygonaceae revealed variation in size and shape of epidermal cells, stomata, glandular and non glandular trichomes. This study proves to be taxonomically important tool in the delimitation of taxa. Epidermal cell shapes are variable but mostly polygonal. Five different stomatal patterns are reported...

Author(s): Ghazalah Yasmin, Mir Ajab Khan, Nighat Shaheen and Muhammad Qasim Hayat

June 2010

Growth and yield responses of Sphenostylis stenocarpa (Hochst ex. A Rich) Harms (African yam bean) to potassium application

  Responses of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) to supplementary application of potassium (K) on soil were examined. Effects of the varying levels of potassium on vegetative growth, flowering, pod maturation, yield and yield components were also evaluated. There seems to be no significant mean effect (P > 0.05) upon K application on the above ground parameters of African yam bean. Similarly, soil...

Author(s): G. C. Mgbeze and B. Ikhajiagbe

June 2010

The effects of exogenous proline and osmotic stress on morpho-biochemical parameters of strawberry callus

  For evaluation of growth parameters of strawberry callus under osmotic stress and exogenous proline, embryonic calli were transferred to Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing four sucrose (osmotic stress) treatments including 3, 6, 9 and 12% and various concentrations of exogenous L-proline (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 mM) supplemented with 1 mg/l of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) + 0.5 mg/l 6-benzyl amino...

Author(s): Mohammad Gerdakaneh, Ali-Akbar Mozafari, Ahmad Khalighi and Adel Sioseh-Mardah

June 2010

Trace metals distribution and uptake in soil and rice grown on a 3-year vermicompost amended soil

  This study was designed to investigate the influence of vermicompost (VC) on trace metals distribution and uptake in soil and rice plant in research field as split plot arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications in 2008. Main-plot was VC and chemical fertilizer (CF) that were added to soil in 6 levels (20 and 40 ton/ha VC, 20 and 40 ton/ha VC + 1/2 CF, CF and control)....

Author(s): Seyed Majid Mousavi, Mohammad Ali Bahmanyar, Hemmatollah Pirdashtiand Soroush Salek Gilani

June 2010

Effect of activated charcoal, abscisic acid and polyethylene glycol on maturation, germination and conversion of Aesculus hippocastanum androgenic embryos

  The influence of activated charcoal (AC), abscisic acid (ABA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) on the maturation and conversion of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) androgenic embryos were tested. Androgenic embryos originating from microspores and anther culture were maturated over 90 days. Androgenic embryos on media containing PEG (50 g l-1), in combination with AC (1 g l-1) showed a rapid...

Author(s): Dušica Ćalić-Dragosavac, Snežana Zdravkovi-Korać, Borut Bohanec, Ljiljana Radojević, Branka Vinterhalter, Svetlana Stevović, Aleksandar Cingel and Jelena Savić

June 2010

Performance of phosphate solubilizing bacteria for improving growth and yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in the presence of phosphorus fertilizer

  The ability of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) to convert insoluble forms of phosphorus to an accessible form is an important trait in sustainable farming for increasing plant yields. The beneficial effects of PSB on crop productivity have been widely described, but the use of PSB as biofertilizer is scarcely documented in sunflower. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of...

Author(s): Zehra Ekin

June 2010

Effects of rootstocks and irrigation levels on grape quality of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz

  The influence of two rootstocks (SO4 and 1103P) on grape quality and berry chemical composition was studied in a factorial experiment, in field grown grapevines of cv. Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.), subjected to five irrigation levels [0% (T1), 25% (T2), 50% (T3), 75% (T4) and 100% (T5) of irrigation depth (IW, mm): Class A pan evaporimeter (CPE)]. Spectrophotometric analyses of total anthocyanins...

Author(s): M. Ozden, H. Vardin, M. Simsek and M. Karaaslan

June 2010

Productive efficiency of tea industry: A stochastic frontier approach

  In an economy where recourses are scarce and opportunities for a new technology are lacking, studies will be able to show the possibility of raising productivity by improving the industry’s efficiency. This study attempts to measure the status of technical efficiency of tea-producing industry for panel data in Bangladesh using the stochastic frontier production function, incorporating technical...

Author(s): Md. Azizul Baten, Anton Abdulbasah Kamil and Mohammad Anamul Haque

June 2010

Flavonoids and volatiles in Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat flower from Tongxiang County in China

  Flavonoids and volatiles in a traditional herbal medicine Chrysanthemum morifoliumRamat flower were determined by HPLC and GC/MS, respectively. Eight flavonoids and fifty eight volatiles were identified. Luteolin-7-glucoside and quercitrin were the most abundant flavonoids and they amounted for 85.7% of the total detected flavonoids. Β-Humulene was the most abundant volatile and...

Author(s): Qing-Lei Sun, Shu Hua, Jian-Hui Ye, Xin-Qiang Zheng and Yue-Rong Liang

June 2010

Using flotation in ethanol to separate filled and empty seeds of Pinus nigra ssp. pallasiana

  In this study, the separation of filled and empty seeds of Crimean pine (Pinus nigraArn. ssp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe) by flotation in ethanol and the effect of this treatment on seed germination were investigated. Flotation tests in 96% ethanol by the density method and then germination tests were made on the seeds from three Crimean pine provenances of southern Turkey. In the...

Author(s): Mahmut D. Avsar

June 2010

Nitrogen dose and plant density effects on popcorn grain yield

  Popcorn (Zea mays everta Sturt.) is a popular and nutritious snack food. Environmental factors affecting grain yield and yield-related components of popcorn are needed to compensate increasing demand. This research was conducted to determine the effects of nitrogen fertilizer application rates and plant densities on grain yield and yield-related plant characteristics of popcorn in Hatay, located at...

Author(s): Hüseyin Gözübenli and Ömer Konuşkan

June 2010

Effect of sowing dates and seed treatments on yield, some yield parameters and protein content of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

  The present study was carried out in 2006 and 2007 crop seasons at Suleyman Demirel University research farms, Turkey. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of sowing times and different seed treatments (control, distilled water, 100, 200, 300 and 400 ppm GA3) on 100 seed weight, harvest index, seed yield and protein content in 3 chickpea cultivars (Gokce, Akcin 91 and...

Author(s): Muharrem Kaya, Arif Şanli and Muhammet Tonguç

June 2010

Effect of surface roughness on drying speed of drying lamellas in veneer roller dryer

  Lamellas, which are defined as top layers of multilayer parquet and favourable to wood veneer can be dried in jet ventilated automatic veneer roller dryer due to short drying period. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of surface roughness on the drying speed of the veneer roller dryer. Quercus spp., frequently used tree specie in Turkish solid wood and...

Author(s): Nur Muge Gungor, Ramazan Kantay and Suleyman Korkut

June 2010

Effect of plant cover on presence of Black Francolin (Francolinus francolinus) in Khouzestan Province, Southwestern Iran

  Three of 6 subspecies of black francolins (Francolinus francolinus), are found throughout Iran. Habitat destruction and indiscriminate hunting as well as agricultural pesticides are among the most crucial factors threatening the populations of these birds in Khouzestan Province, southwestern Iran. Using plot sampling, this study aims to investigate different vegetative factors including plant species,...

Author(s): R. Behbash, M. Karami, A. Mahiny, M. Nabavi and N. Khorasani

June 2010

Microaerobic biodegradation of high organic load wastewater by phototrophic bacteria

  High organic strength artificial simulated brewery wastewater (10,000 mgl-1 COD) was used in a batch photo-bioreactor to study the effectiveness of new strain phototrophic bacteria in bioremediation of organic contaminated wastewater. In this work, effects of additions of three individual micronutrients, that is, ferrous, molybdenum and magnesium, and a mixture of micronutrient with urea on the...

Author(s): Edith Ifeoma Madukasi, and Guangming Zhang

June 2010

Calcium regulation of carbohydrate modification in sorghum

  Two improved Nigeria sorghum cultivars (KSV 8 and ICSV 400) were used to evaluate the effects of steep water Ca2+ treatment on carbohydrate modification in sorghum. The response of all the carbohydrate mobilization indicators evaluated [α- and β- amylases, diastatic activity (DP), extract and cold water soluble carbohydrates (CWS-carbohydrates)] to steep water Ca2+ treatment was highly...

Author(s): Bartholomew N. Okolo, Anene N. Moneke, Lewis I. Ezeogu and Francis S. Ire

June 2010

Analysis of microorganisms and physicochemical properties in Zaopei during the fermentation of Chinese zhijiang-flavor liquor

  Zhijiang-flavor liquor, one of the most famous strong aroma style of Chinese liquor, is distilled from fermented grains in Hubei province of China. In order to know the diversity, the constitution, and the dynamic change of microflora andphysicochemical components in Zaopei during the fermentation of Chinese Zhijiang-flavor liquor, a normal pit in Zhijiang Distillery in autumn (used as...

Author(s): Mao-bin Chen, Dan-dan Yang, Zhi-wei Qian, Da Zhen, Dong-hai Peng and Shang-ling Fang

June 2010

Antimicrobial and phytotoxic screening of various fractions of Sonchus asper

  Sonchus asper is used in the treatment of many diseases ethnopharmacologically in Pakistan. In the present manuscript we demonstrate the antimicrobial and phytotoxic effects of various fractions of S. asper. Six (6) different bacteria (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, klebsiella pneumoniae,Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa)...

Author(s): Rahmat Ali Khan, Muhammad Rashid Khan, Sumaira Sahreen and Jasia Bokhari

June 2010

Investigation of dietary fiber, protein, vitamin E and other nutritional compounds of banana flower of two cultivars grown in China

  The nutritional composition of banana flowers of two cultivars [cvs. Baxijiao (AAA) and Paradisical (AAB)] grown in Hainan of China has been studied. Flower samples were collected and extracted according to methods of Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). Results showed that banana flowers contained abundant dietary fiber (4.96-5.74 g/100g) and proteins (1.62-2.07 g/100 g). The major amino acids...

Author(s): Zhan-Wu Sheng, Wei-Hong Ma, Zhi-Qiang Jin, Yang Bi, Zhi-Gao Sun , Hua-Ting Dou, Jin-He Gao, Jing-Yang Li and Li-Na Han

June 2010

Seasonal changes on total fatty acid composition of carp (Cyprinus carpio L. ), in İvriz Dam Lake, Turkey

 The effects of seasonal variation on the fatty acid composition of carps Cyprinus carpio were determined. A total of 38 different fatty acids were determined in the composition of carps. There were quantitative differences between fatty acids in muscle tissue investigated, depending on the season. Oleic acid C18:1 ω9 was the major monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) in all seasons. Palmitic acid...

Author(s): L. Kalyoncu, Y. Yaman and A. Aktumsek

June 2010

Effect of ripening period on composition of pepino (Solanum muricatum) fruit grown in Turkey

  Pepino is a new crop for Turkey. Raw and mature pepino fruits which were grown in greenhouse in Antalya, Mediterranean region of Turkey, were used for compositional analysis. Moisture, protein, ash, oil, sugar, NDF (Neutral detergent fiber) and ADF (Acid detergent fiber) analysis were done at two stages. Moisture was determined as the main component of the fruit by 93.80 and 91.45% for raw and mature...

Author(s): Hasan Yalçin

June 2010

Ectopic expression of Crambe abyssinica lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase in transgenic rapeseed increases its oil content

  Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT) is a pivotal enzyme controlling the metabolic flow of lysophosphatidic acid into different phosphatidic acids in diverse organisms. Here we identified and cloned LPAAT from Crambe abyssinica Hochst. ex R. E. Fries (CaLPAAT, GenBank accession number EF208088). To study its function in vivo, CaLPAAT was introduced into Brassica...

Author(s): Ke Xu, Yi Yang and Xufeng Li

June 2010

Milk-clotting activity of berries extracts from nine Solanum plants

 Nine Solanum species (Solanum aculeastrum, Solanum aethiopicum, Solanum anomalum, Solanum cerasiferum, Solanum dasyphyllum, Solanum indicum, Solanum nigrum, Solanum nodiflorum and Solanum terminale) berries were studied in order to find a new source of milk-clotting enzymes for artisanal use by Cameroonian farmers. The results showed that milk-clotting activity was obtained by soaking fresh and dried...

Author(s): V. D. Guiama, D. G. Libouga, E. Ngah and C. M. Mbofung

June 2010

Histological effects of chronic administration of Phyllanthus amarus on the superior colliculus of adult wistar rats

  Effects of administration of Phyllanthus amarus commonly used for the treatment of jaundice, diarrhea, dysentery, urogenital disease and wound on the superior colliculus of adult wistar rats was carefully studied. Rats of both sexes (n = 24), with average weight of 200 g were randomly assigned into two treatments (A and B) and control (C) groups of 8 rats each. The rats in the treatment groups (A...

Author(s): Josiah Obaghwarhievwo Adjene

June 2010

Ligand based pharmacophore modelling of anticancer histone deacetylase inhibitors

 Histone deacetylases have emerged as an important therapeutic target for the treatment of cancer. Genome-wide histone hypoacetylation causes many cancers. Recently, inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDAC) have emerged as an important class of anticancer agents. Various side effects like myocardium damage and bone marrow depression even leading to cell death have been observed in the treatment of caner cells...

Author(s): Nighat Noureen, Saima Kalsoom and Hamid Rashid

June 2010

Association between circulating levels of P-selectins and burden of thrombus formation in patients with ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction

  We tested the hypothesis that, in the acute phase of ST-segment elevationmyocardial infarction (STEMI), the circulating level of P-selectin (PS) is predictive of angiographic morphologic features that indicate burden of thrombus formation in the infarct-related artery (IRA). One hundred and ninety-five consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) who underwent primary percutaneous coronary...

Author(s): Zhi Liu, Qi Hua, Dongbao Li, Yueqiao Xu, Liqing Xu, Jing Li, Rongkun Liu and Zheng Yang

June 2010

Evaluation of Ellagic acid on the activities of oral bacteria with the use of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence assay

  Ellagic acid, a natural herb extract from Galla Chinensis in traditional Chinese medicine, shows antimicrobial activity to certain bacteria. The present study evaluated the effect of Ellagic acid on the growth of oral bacteria as well as their generation of water-insoluble glucan and adhesion to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (S-HA) beads. Streptococcus mutans ATCC...

Author(s): Wings TY Loo, LJ Jin, Mary NB Cheung and Louis WC Chow,

June 2010

Histopathological effects of maternal hair dye use on the cornea

 The aim of this study is to investigate and compare the histopathological effects of hair dye additives, 2-amino-5-nitrophenol (2A5NP) and 2-nitro-p-phenylendiamin (2NPPD) on cornea of neonates from pregnant rats that have been administered these additives subcutaneously. The study included 90 neonates of 26 nulligravida wistar-albino rats among which ten were given 100 mg/kg/day 2A5NP (Group I), ten rats received...

Author(s): Hulya Erbagci, Ibrahim Erbagci, Ibrahim Sari, Nese Kizilkan, Cahit Bagci, Oguzhan Saygili, Erdem Gumusburunand Mehmet Ozaslan

June 2010

Compensatory growth assessment by plasma IGF-I hormone measurement and growth performance in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

  This study aimed to show the difference in compensatory growth (CG) with different starvation and feeding periods replications, depending on the IGF-I hormone level in the blood. There were 4 treatments in 3 replications. Other indexes like food coefficient ratio (FCR), specific growth rate (SGR) and daily food intake were also examined during the experiment. Fish were fed twice a day ad libitum as...

Author(s): Ruhollah Rahimi, Mehrdad Farhangi, Bagher Mojazi Amiri, Fatemeh rezaie, Parisa Norouzitallab and Afshin Afzali

June 2010

Evaluation of productive performance of 51 different peanut cocoon strains of Iran silkworm Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) germplasm

  In our study, 51 peanut strains of Iran silkworm germplasm were evaluated for 36 economically important traits and for the feasibility of using these strains for breeding programs. After hatching of eggs, neonates were brushed and reared up separately on fresh leaves of mulberry (Morus alba). Newly hatched larvae of all strains were reared for experiment. Individual egg laying were prepared for each...

Author(s): M. Salehi Nezhad, S. Z. Mirhosseini, A. R. Seidavi, S. Gharahveysi and M. Mavvajpour