African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12275

Table of Content: 27 September 2010; 9(39)

September 2010

Overview of groundnuts research in Uganda: Past, present and future

The Groundnut Department at National Semi-Arid Research Resources Institute (NaSARRI) is mandated to conduct research on groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L) in Uganda. It undertakes research aimed at cultivar development, maintenance and conservation through germplasm collection, characterization, evaluation, breeding, maintenance and generation of appropriate crop management technologies for sustained production. Most...

Author(s): D. K. Okello, M. Biruma and C. M. Deom

September 2010

Optimization and transformation of Arundo donax L. using particle bombardment

An optimized particle bombardment protocol to introduce DNA into Arundo donax L. (giant reed) embryogenic callus cells was developed. The physical and biological parameters tested for optimal transient expression of ß-glucuronidase (GUS) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) genes were: helium pressure, distance from stopping screen to target tissue and vacuum pressure together with other factors such as...

Author(s): Sarwan Dhir, Kaye Knowles, C. Livia Pagan, Justin Mann and Shireen Dhir

September 2010

Deletion of the yhdT gene of Bacillus subtilis and its influence on hemolysis

Bacillus subtilis is commonly used as a probiotic. Recently, some metabolites of B. subtilis were reported to cause hemolysis; however, the mechanism by which these metabolites cause hemolysis remains to be clarified. In this study, we cloned the hemolysis-associated gene yhdT and constructed a yhdT gene-deletion mutant of the B. subtilis 224 strain. Further, we determined...

Author(s): Jie Liu, Qiong Zhang and Chunhong Fang

September 2010

Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of biofuel plant Jatropha curcas using kanamycin selection

Establishment of an efficient transformation system is a prerequisite for genetic improvement of Jatropha curcas, a promising biodiesel feedstock plant, by transgenic approach. In this study an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol using cotyledon explants from J. curcas seeds was developed. The integration and expression of the transgenes in the putatively...

Author(s): Jingli Pan, Qiantang Fu and Zeng-Fu Xu,

September 2010

Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency in varieties of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by separate and combined treatment with gamma-rays and sodium azide

The effect of single treatment with gamma-rays, sodium azide and combination treatments of gamma-rays and sodium azide on seed germination, seedling survival, pollen fertility and seed set in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) M2generation was studied in the varieties of USH-430 and SHSF-333. There was gradual decrease of seedling survival and pollen fertility with an increase in the dose of mutagen in both...

Author(s): P. Raja Ramesh Kumar and S. Venkat Ratnam

September 2010

Localization and composition of seed oils of Crithmum maritimum L. (Apiaceae)

The use of some halophytes for rehabilitation of salt affected area has been reported. Crithmum maritimum L. halophyte and apiaceae can tolerate high levels of salt. Their seed was endospermic and had a suitable size for oil extraction. The aim of this report is to localize the lipids in the seed and determine their oils composition. The results showed that the lipids were accumulated in endosperm tissue as...

Author(s): Abdallah Atia, Ahmed Debez, Zouhaier Barhoumi, Chedly Abdelly and Abderrazak Smaoui

September 2010

Proximity effects of high voltage electric power transmission lines on ornamental plant growth

The proximity effects of high voltage electric power transmission lines on Leyland Cypress (xCupressocyparis leylandii (Dallim. and A.B. Jacks.) Dallim) and Japanese Privet (Ligustrum japonicum Thunb.) growth were examined in a private nursery located in Sakarya, Turkey. Five transect were randomly chosen in both leylandii and privet lots in the nursery. In the summer of 2009, starting from under the power...

Author(s): Zeki Demir

September 2010

Examining environmental condition on the growth areas of Turkish hazelnut (Corylus colurna L.)

Hazelnut has nutritional and economic value as an agricultural product. Hazelnut, mostly grown in Turkey, has not been planted in all agricultural areas, and the yield and the quality of hazelnut differentiate depending on place where it is grown. This can be a result of response of environmental conditions. In this study, recent hazelnut growth areas were determined by Remote Sensing techniques for Trabzon province of...

Author(s): Arif Cagdas Aydinoglu

September 2010

Breaking seed dormancy in oil rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) by microbial inoculation

This study was carried out to determine the effects of microbial inoculation in breaking seed dormancy and on the germination of Rosa damascena Mill. Seeds ofR. damascena Mill. are the most used scented rose species in rose oil production. The most important production centers around the world are Turkey and Bulgaria. The seeds were subjected to 4 weeks of warm stratification at 25°C, followed by 150...

Author(s): Soner Kazaz, Sabri Erbaş and Hasan Baydar

September 2010

Osmotic potential, photosynthetic abilities and growth characters of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) seedlings in responses to polyethylene glycol-induced water deficit

The aim of the present study is to investigate the biochemical, physiological and morphological responses of oil palm seedlings when exposed to polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induced water deficit. Oil palm seedlings were photo-autotrophically grown in MS media and subsequently exposed to -0.23 (control), -0.42, -0.98 or -2.15 MPa PEG-induced water deficit. Osmotic potential (s) in root and leaf tissues of oil palm...

Author(s): Suriyan Cha-um, Teruhiro Takabe, Chalermpol Kirdmanee

September 2010

Variability of amygdalin content in seeds of sweet and bitter apricot cultivars in Turkey

In this study, amygdalin contents in the seeds of ten different bitter or sweet apricot cultivars were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for two years. The seeds of apricot cultivars were obtained from the Malatya Fruit Research Institute in Turkey. The results indicated that genetic variation was found among the cultivars. The amygdalin contents of bitter cultivars were found to be higher than...

Author(s): Fatma Akinci Yildirim and  M. Atilla Askin

September 2010

Isolation, identification and cadmium adsorption of a high cadmium-resistant Paecilomyces lilacinus

Microorganisms play important roles in bioremediation. The present study was carried out to investigate metal resistance and adsorption strains. A cadmium-resistant fungus M1 was isolated from Zhuzhou smelter in China. The 18S rRNA, internal transcribed spacers (ITS) region and β-tubulin gene of the strain were sequenced and aligned with the high similar sequences published in GenBank. The morphology was...

Author(s): Xiaoxi Zeng, Jianxin Tang, Huaqun Yin, Xueduan Liu, Pei Jiang and Hongwei Liu

September 2010

Growth responses of NaCl stressed rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants germinated from seed in aseptic nutrient cultures supplemented with proline

Negative impact of salinity on plant germination is significant because of abundance of Na+ in culture medium, which causes growth inhibition. Effect of salinity (NaCl) in the presence of proline was assessed in rice (Oryza sativa L.) variety Khushbo-95 at seedling stage. Seeds were cultured on MS0 (MS basal medium), MS1 (MS0 + 100 mM NaCl) and MS2 (MS1 + 5 mM proline) for 20 days....

Author(s): Ikram-ul-Haq, Ali Mohammad Dahri, Muhammad Umar Dahot, Nazia Parveen, Abdul Ghaffar and Abdul Latif Laghari

September 2010

Decolorization efficiency of Funalia trogii under static condition: Effect of C: N ratios

Effects of physical conditions (pH and temperature), carbon and nitrogen source on decolorization of Reactive black 5 (RB5) by Funalia trogii were investigated under the static condition. Optimization of temperature and pH were also examined. Moreover, two different carbon sources (sucrose and starch), four different nitrogen sources and also four different C:N ratios (0.9, 3.0, 6.0, 18.0) were studied....

Author(s): M. Ali Mazmanci and Ali Unyayar

September 2010

Determination of the accumulator plants in Kucukcekmece Lake (Istanbul)

Soils are polluted by actions like using commercial fertilizers, pesticides, soil regulators and hormones to increase the amount and quality of agricultural production, discharge of soil and liquid wastes, performing wastewater sludge applications, using polluted waters in agricultural irrigation, atmospheric precipitations and radioactive sprays. It is an important environmental problem to reform and clean the soils...

Author(s): Aida Sahmurova, Mucella Celik and Surhay Allahverdiyev

September 2010

Biodegradation of microcystin by a new Bacillus sp. isolated from a Saudi freshwater lake

A new strain of Bacillus sp. was isolated from a Saudi eutrophic lake containing toxic cyanobacterial blooms. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence, the new strain most likely belonged to the genus Bacillus with a similarity of 81%. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), AMRI-03 strain was shown to contain a gene homologues to mlrA that encodes the most important enzyme...

Author(s): Saad A. Alamri

September 2010

Cytotoxic effect induced by Morinda morindoides leaf extracts in human and murine leukemia cells

We report here the in vitro effect of the toluene, methyl tert-buthyl ether (MtBE),ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-buthanol (n-BuOH) and H2O  extracts from Morinda morindoides (rubiaceae) leaves against a human leukemic cell line, K562, and two murine leukemic cell lines, P388 and L1210. We found that both toluene and MtBE extracts exhibited a significant cytotoxic effect on...

Author(s): OkiemyAkeli Marie-Genevieve, , Ongoka Pascal Robin, Gatouillat Gregory, Attibayeba, Lavaud Catherine and Madoulet Claudie

September 2010

Carvacrol, (-)-borneol and citral reduce convulsant activity in rodents

Carvacrol, a monoterpenic phenol present in essential oils of the Labiatae family, has been used through the ages as a source of flavor in food and for medicinal purposes. Borneol is a monoterpene found in several species of Artemisia andDipterocarpaceae, used for anxiety, pain and anesthesia in traditional Chinese. Citral, a mixture of two geometrical isomers (neral and geranial), is one of the most...

Author(s): Lucindo J. Quintans-Júnior, Adriana G. Guimarães, Bruno E. S. Araújo, Geovana F. Oliveira, Marília T. Santana, Flávia V. Moreira, Márcio R. V. Santos, Sócrates C. H. Cavalcanti, Waldecir De Lucca Júnior, Marco A. Botelho, Luciano A. A. Ribeiro, Franklin F. F. Nóbrega and Reinaldo N. Almeida

September 2010

Effects of pan frying with different oils on some of the chemical components, quality parameters and cholesterol levels of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

The changes in chemical composition, cholesterol and fatty acids have been determined in raw and fried rainbow trout. Olive oil, sunflower oil, corn oil, margarine and butter were used in the frying process. Moisture content was decreased and protein, fat, ash and cholesterol contents were increased after frying. Differences in moisture, protein, fat, and ash content between the samples were significant (P < 0.05)....

Author(s): Şengül Bilgin, Levent İzci, Ali Günlü and Yıldız Bolat

September 2010

Heavy metals contamination of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and Lates niloticus in Ikere Gorge, Oyo state, Nigeria

This study investigates the presence of heavy metal contamination of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and Lates niloticus. Adult C. nigrodigitatus and L. niloticus were obtained from fishermen in Ikere Gorge, Oyo state, Nigeria. Water samples were also collected during the wet and dry seasons of the year in the same locality. The presence of five metals were analyzed in both fish and...

Author(s): Adeosun, F. I., Omoniyi, I. T., Akegbejo-Samsons, Y. and Olujimi, O. O.

September 2010

Effects of vitamins C and E pretreatments on cadmium-induced serum levels of some biochemical and hormonal parameters in the female guinea pig

Cadmium is a widely distributed environmental pollutant and toxicant. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of vitamins C and E on cadmium-induced serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), urea, creatinine, progesterone, LH and FSH in the female guinea pig. Animals were given single doses of vitamins C (1.5 mg/kg) and E (50 mg/kg) per oral and (0 - 8 mg Cd/kg ip) for 24 h. Animals were sacrificed...

Author(s): A. W. Obianime, N. J. Ahiwe and J. S. Aprioku

September 2010

The effect of different treatments on improving seed germination characteristics in medicinal species of Descurainia sophia and Plantago ovata

Creating optimal conditions for germination of medicinal plants seed is essential for their cultivation. Therefore, to evaluate the effect of different treatments on seed germination of two medicinal species, Descurainia sophia and Plantago ovatacollected in 2009 from Tehran Province, an experiment with a factorial randomized complete block design in 6 treatments with 4 replications was conducted....

Author(s): Tavili Ali, Pouzesh Hossein, Farajolahi Asghar, Zare Salman and Zare Chahooki Mohammad Ali

September 2010

Genetic diversity and classification of 51 strains of silkworm Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) germplasm based on larval phenotypic data using Ward’s and UPGMA methods

The aim of this experiment was to study and classify all 51 pure lines of Iran silkworm germplasm based on larval traits and identification of pure lines relationships. The average linkage between two groups is considered as the average of distance between all pairs of cases with one number from each group. Hierarchical clustering analysis was carried out by considering all studied parameters together. The grouping...

Author(s): M. Salehi Nezhad, S. Z. Mirhosseini, S. Gharahveysi, M. Mavvajpour, A. R. Seidavi and  M. Naserani