African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12218

Table of Content: 2 August 2010; 9(31)

August 2010

A model for education and promoting food science and technology among high school students and the public

A model for education and promoting food science and technology (FST) as a career among high school students and the public is proposed. Important as FST may be, there has been a general down trend in the number of students enrolling for the course in the institutions worldwide. This is not unconnected with the “home economics/catering” image perception of the discipline by the public. The efforts of some...

Author(s): Victoria Adaora Jideani and Israel Afam Jideani

August 2010

Enzymes used in detergents: Lipases

Microbial lipases are an important group of biotechnologically valuable enzymes, because of the versatility of their applied properties and ease of mass production. Lipases of microbial origin are widely diversified in their enzymatic properties and substrate specificity, which make them very attractive for industrial applications. This review describes the applications of microbial lipases in detergents. Enzymes can...

Author(s): Fariha Hasan, Aamer Ali Shah, Sundus Javed and Abdul Hameed

  • Article Number: 496483F23040

August 2010

Physiological and behavioural responses of livestock to road transportation stress: A review

Physiological and behavioural responses of livestock to road transportation stress are reviewed. Livestock transported by road in most part of the world are predisposed to many stressors which affect the haematological, hormonal function as well as the behavioural activities of the livestock thereby disrupting body homeostasis.   Key words: Road transportation, livestock, physiological parameters,...

Author(s): Adenkola, A. Y. and Ayo, J. O.

August 2010

Assessing the genetic diversity of cultivars and wild soybeans using SSR markers

Increasing the diversity of the soybean germplasm base could introduce new genes affecting agronomic traits. In this study, we demonstrated the differences of genetic diversity level among 40 soybean accessions of cultivars, landraces and wild soybeans collected in the Shanxi Agricultural University using 40 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs. The structure based on model result showed that the cultivars,...

Author(s): Wang Min, Li Run-zhi, Yang Wan-ming and Du Wei-jun

August 2010

A molecular phylogeny of selected species of genus Prunus L. (Rosaceae) from Pakistan using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) spacer DNA

Prunus is found in all four provinces of Pakistan, that is, Punjab, NWFP, Sindh and Baluchistan including Azad Kashmir region. Studies on the family Rosaceae is scanty in the Flora of Pakistan and there is a lot of taxonomic work yet to be done, for the proper classification and placement of different genera under different sub-families. In the present study, the genus Prunus was studied in...

Author(s): Syed Aneel Gilani, Rizwana Aleem Qureshi, Amir M. Khan and Daniel Potter

August 2010

Molecular cloning and characterization of two genes - PHKG2 and IRAK4 from black-boned sheep (Ovis aries)

The complete coding sequences of two sheep genes-PHKG2 and IRAK4 were amplified using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method based on three sheep expressed sequence tags whose translated amino acids contain the mitochondrial carrier domain. The sequence analyses of these two genes revealed that the sheep PHKG2 gene encodes a protein of 406 amino acids which has high homology...

Author(s): Yongke Sun, Yuai Yang, Dongmei Xi, Xiao Gou, Huaming Mao and Weidong Deng

August 2010

Phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of aqueous and methanol stem extracts of Costus afer Ker Gawl. (Costaceae)

Medicinal plants contain bioactive compounds capable of preventing and fighting oxidative related diseases. These compounds must be screened and assayed before effective drugs are developed. Thus, phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of aqueous and methanol stem extracts of Costus afer Ker-Gawl were evaluated. C. afer contained flavonoids, phenols, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides,...

Author(s): Godswill N. Anyasor, K. Olusola Ogunwenmo, Olatunji A. Oyelana and Blessing E. Akpofunure

August 2010

Antibacterial activity of metal complexes of antifolate drug pyrimethamine

Ag(I), Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes of pyrimethamine [5-(4-chlorophenyl)-6-ethyl pyrimidinediamine] have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, conductivity measurement, FTIR and UV-Vis spectroscopy.  Pyrimethamine act as a monodentate ligand through the pyrimidinic N(1) atom and coordinate the metal ions to give rise to a 4-coordinate tetrahedral and 6-coordinate octahedral for the Co(II) and...

Author(s): Omoruyi G. Idemudia and Peter A. Ajibade

August 2010

Effect of varying relative humidity on the rancidity of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) kernel oil by lipolytic organisms

Post harvest deterioration by microbes due to improper storage condition is considered to be the major cause of spoilage and rancidity of most oil-bearing seeds like cashew nuts through lipolytic action of lipase enzyme. Roasted cashew nuts were subjected to four different storage conditions with different relative humidity of 30, 70, 80 and 90%, respectively for a period of twelve days. Oil extracted from cashew kernel...

Author(s): A. A. Onilude, R. O. Igbinadolor and S. M. Wakil

August 2010

Host range evaluation and morphological characterization of Pseudoperonospora cubensis, the causal agent of cucurbit downy mildew in Malaysia

A total of 29 isolates of Pseudoperonospora cubensis were collected from various cucurbit farms in West Malaysia. Sporangia of 13 isolates had the ability to germinate at 14°C and were used for host range (pathotype) study using leaf disc assay on a set of twelve cucurbit cultivars.  Twelve different pathotypes of P. cubensis were determined and this demonstrated that P....

Author(s): Mansour Salati, Wong Mui Yun, Sariah Meon, and H. Nik Masdek

August 2010

In vitro salt stress induced production of gymnemic acid in callus cultures of Gymnema sylvestre R.Br.

Gymnema sylvestre, a well known antidiabetic plant, was cultured in vitro for callus induction using leaf explant. Gymnemic acid content enhancement under the influence of different plant hormones like 2,4-D, BA with or without NaCl supplementation to the MS medium is presented in this investigation. The highest efficiency of callus formation was observed in the medium containing different concentrations...

Author(s): Upendra Kumar, Ishwar Singh, Priyanka and Y. Vimala

August 2010

The contribution of bnnrt1 and bnnrt2 to nitrate accumulation varied according to genotypes in Chinese cabbage

Two Chinese cabbage cultivars (SYM and HGQGC) with significant difference in nitrate accumulation were used in the experiment by real-time PCR technique. The expression level of BnNRT1 and BnNRT2, nitrate uptake rate and nitrate reductase activity (NRA) were detected under 0.2 mM and 2 mM NO3- treatments. The results showed that the nitrate accumulation in Chinese cabbage varied according to...

Author(s): Shouping Zhao, Xuezhu Ye, Yongzhi Zhang and Jici Zheng

August 2010

Comparisons of environmental effects and productivity by road construction machines in forest areas in Turkey

In this study, forest road construction techniques, environmental damages, cross sections and productivity by using hydraulic excavator and bulldozer were investigated in forested lands in Antalya and Eskisehir region in Turkey. Maximum length of fill slope for bulldozer and excavator were found 17 m on 80% slope gradient and 11 m on same slope gradient, respectively. The costs of forest roads for bulldozer and...

Author(s): Tolga Ozturk and Muhittin Inan

August 2010

Comparative study of methods for extraction and purification of environmental DNA from high-strength wastewater sludge

DNA extraction from wastewater sludge (COD 50000 and BOD 25000 mg/l) was conducted using nine different methods normally used for environmental samples including a procedure used in this study and the results obtained were compared. The quality of the differently extracted DNAs was subsequently assessed by measuring humic acid concentration, cell lysis efficiency, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of...

Author(s): Meisam Tabatabaei, Mohd Rafein Zakaria, Raha Abdul Rahim, Norhani Abdullah andré-Denis G. Wright, Yoshihito Shirai, Mehdi Shamsara, Kenji Sakai and Mohd Ali Hassan

August 2010

Analysis and determination of mercury, cadmium and lead in canned tuna fish marketed in Iran

The objective of this study is to determine mercury, cadmium and lead concentrations in 60 canned tuna fish samples produced and distributed in Iran after digestion by the standard methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Mercury contents in canned tuna fish were determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry while cadmium and lead were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption...

Author(s): Ebrahim Rahimi, Mazyar Hajisalehi, Hamid Reza Kazemeini, Ali Chakeri, Amin Khodabakhsh, Mohammad Derakhshesh, Mahdi Mirdamadi, Abdol Ghaffar Ebadi, Seyed Ali Rezvani and Maryam Fallah Kashkahi

August 2010

Purification and biochemical characterization of a serine alkaline protease TC4 from a new isolated Bacillus alcalophilus TCCC11004 in detergent formulations

An extracellular alkaline protease producing strain was isolated from alkaline soil and identified as Bacillus alcalophilus TCCC11004 on the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequencing and biochemical properties. The most appropriate medium for the protease production was composed of (g/l): maltodextrin 110, yeast extract 17.5, cotton seed meal 29.3, K2HPO4 18, trisodium citrate 3.3 and CaCl2 2.6. The alkaline...

Author(s): Kun Cheng, Fu-Ping Lu, Ming Li, Li-Li Liu and Xiao-Mei Liang

August 2010

Characterization of xylose reductase from Candida tropicalis immobilized on chitosan bead

A xylose reductase (XR) with high activity and dual coenzyme activity from Candida tropical was purified to homogeneity by Ni2+-chelating column, and immobilized on chitosan bead. Studies on free and immobilized XR systems for determination of optimum temperature, optimum pH, thermal stability, pH stability, operational stability, and kinetic parameters were carried out. Free and immobilized XR showed higher...

Author(s): Yanqiu Su, Wei Li, Weihua Zhu, Rongqing Yu, Baojing Fei, Tao Wen, Yi Cao and Dairong Qiao

August 2010

Antimicrobial activity of propolis against Streptococcus mutans

The ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) obtained from beehives of honeybee (Apis mellifera) was investigated for its antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus mutans isolated from dental caries. Agar well diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determinations were the methods used in this study. The carious tooth was swabbed with a sterile cotton wool and immediately streaked on tryptic soy...

Author(s): E. A. Ophori, B. N. Eriagbonye and P. Ugbodaga

August 2010

Optimizing culture medium for debittering constitutive enzyme naringinase production by Aspergillus oryzae JMU316

The objective of this study was to investigate nutrient requirements for extracellular constitutive naringinase production by Aspergillus oryzae JMU316. The one-factor-at-a-time method was used to determine the impact of different carbon and nitrogen sources on naringinase production. Naringin exhibited the highest naringinase activity compared to all other carbon sources and pomelo pericarp powder produced...

Author(s): Dong-xiao Chen, Tian-gui Niu and Hui-nong Cai

August 2010

Oxygen radical-scavenging capacities of peptides from swine blood

In China, about five hundred million swine are slaughtered yearly, which represents about 45% of the world´s production. Swine blood is generally discarded except for the small amount that is used in soybean curd and other food products. This not only wastes resources, but also contaminates the environment. In this study, we found that peptides from swine blood had molecular masses of less than 2,100 Da and most...

Author(s): Jun Fang, Rao Li-qun, Tian Yun, Xiangyang Lu and Hongmei Jiang

August 2010

The properties of Kluyveromyces lactis for the production of D-arabitol from lactose

Production of D-arabitol from lactose by Kluyveromyces lactis NBRC 1903 was investigated to make a solution for utilization of whey. It turned out that initial concentration of yeast extract, working volume and initial cell mass concentration are important factors in D-arabitol production from lactose by this strain. It was indicated that higher aerobic condition was preferable for D-arabitol production...

Author(s): Tomoyuki Toyoda and Kazuhisa Ohtaguchi

August 2010

Cell kill pattern and acute toxicity studies of the aqueous fraction of the methanolic extract of parts of Parkia biglobosa

The pattern and rate of kill of the aqueous fraction of the methanolic extract of the stem bark of Parkia biglobosa (WS) against three standard organisms of medical and pharmaceutical importance; Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichiacoli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, as well as the acute toxic effects of the same extract along with those...

Author(s): Udobi, C. E. and Onaolapo, J. A.

August 2010

Modulatory effects of Thai medicinal plant extract on proinflammatory cytokines-induced apoptosis in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells

It has been experimentally proven that proinflammatory cytokines, interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α are able to synergistically induce apoptosis in HaCaT keratinocyte cells. The present study aimed to elucidate modulatory effects of ethanolic extracts derived from Thai traditional medicinal plants on IFN-γ/TNF-α-caused HaCaT apoptosis and correlate with their natural...

Author(s): Visa Thongrakard and Tewin Tencomnao

August 2010

The effects of Momordica charantia on the liver in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in neonatal rats

The aim of this study is to determine the effects of Momordica charantia (MC) fruit aqueous extract on the liver histopathological changes in neonatal rats streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus type II. Diabetes mellitus was induced in one day old neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats with STZ (85 mg/kg) and monitored for 12 weeks thereafter. The diabetic rats were separated into three groups as follows:...

Author(s): M. Abdollahi⊃, A. B. Z. Zuki⊃, Y. M. Goh⊃, Rezaeizadeh A.⊃ and M. M. Noordin⊃

August 2010

Effects of RNAi-mediated cathepsin L gene silencing on bionomics of hepatoma carcinoma cells

This study aimed to explore the effects of RNAi-mediated cathepsin L gene silencing on bionomics of hepatoma carcinoma cells. In this study, cathepsin L siRNA silencing group (silencing group), blank hepatoma carcinoma cells group (blank group) and the siRNA fluorescin group (fluorescence control group) were set. The observing time include 1, 3 and 6 days after RNA interference for cathepsin L. The transfection...

Author(s): Yun Jin, Ding Luo, Aijun Hua and Jiahong Dong

August 2010

Growth response of juveniles of Clarias bidorsalis to imported floating feed and cost implication in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria

Growth response of Clarias bidorsalis juveniles weighing between 5 - 10 g that were fed with extruded (floating) imported feed known as coppens were investigated for 84 days. In a simple experiment, 500 juveniles of C. bidorsalis were stocked in four experimental tanks with a dimension of 0.93 × 1.2 × 0.98 m and water capacity of 1000l each containing 125 juveniles. These juveniles were...

Author(s): Chioma G. Achionye-Nzeh

August 2010

Designing of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit for diagnosis copro-antigens of Giardia lamblia

The sensitivity of microscopic examination of fecal samples to recognize Giardiaparasites is low. In the methods based on antigen scanning of parasites such as enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), copro-antigens of parasite will be traced and diagnosed even if the live parasite is absent in the fecal samples. To design this method, a pure antibody against parasite as well as an antibody conjugated to a proper...

Author(s): Afshin Barazesh, Jafar Majidi, Esmaeel Fallah, Rasul Jamali, Jalal Abdolalizade and Reza Gholikhani

August 2010

Antimicrobial efficacy and tissue reaction of Euphorbia hirta ethanolic extract oncanine wounds

Antimicrobial efficacy and tissue reaction of crude ethanolic extract of Euphorbia hirta was investigated in canine infected incised wounds. The gross appearance and histopathological reactions of the lesions were evaluated at 72 h after treatment. The results showed that crude ethanolic extract of E. hirta neither promoted the growth of Staphylococcus aureus nor provoked tissue reaction in...

Author(s): J. F. Akinrinmade and O. A. Oyeleye

August 2010

Antibacterial, antifungal and insecticidal activities of some selected medicinal plants of polygonaceae

The antibacterial, antifungal and insecticidal activities of the crude extract ofPolygonum persicaria, Rumex hastatus, Rumex dentatus, Rumex nepalensis,Polygonum plebejum and Rheum australe have been studied. Six bacterial species were used, of which Citrobacter frundii, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenesand Staphylococcus aureus were the most susceptible...

Author(s): Farrukh Hussain, Bashir Ahmad, Ishfaq Hameed, Ghulam Dastagir, Parveen Sanaullah and Sadiq Azam

August 2010

High frequency plant regeneration from shoot tip explants of Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad. – An important medicinal herb

A high frequency and rapid regeneration protocol was developed from shoot tip explants of Citrullus colocynthis on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with N6-benzylamino-purine (BAP, 0.5 mg/l) and α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA, 0.5 mg/l). Highest number of shoots (23.0 ± 0.567) was obtained on MS medium containing BAP (0.5 mg/l) and NAA (0.5 mg/l). The regenerated shoots were...

Author(s): Mahesh Chand Meena, Ramraj Meena and Vidya Patni