African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12405

Table of Content: 4 March 2008; 7(5)

March 2008

Recent developments in life sciences research: Role of bioinformatics

  Life sciences research and development has opened up new challenges and opportunities for bioinformatics. The contribution of bioinformatics advances made possible the mapping of the entire human genome and genomes of many other organisms in just over a decade. These discoveries, along with current efforts to determine gene and protein functions, have improved our ability to understand the root causes of...

Author(s): Vaddi Srinivasa Rao, Sussant Kumar Das, Vaddi Janardhana Rao and Gedela Srinubabu

March 2008

Autofluorescence of routinely hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections without exogenous markers

  Hematoxylin and eosin stained paraffin section was examined by fluorescence microscopy to study the pattern and distribution of fluorescence.  Autofluorescence was sensitive and specific for detection of elastic and collagen fibers. It was concluded that analytical morphological techniques based on autofluorescence can obtain information about morphological and pathological state of tissue and...

Author(s): Deeb S., Nesr K. H., Mahdy E., Badawey M. and Badei M.

March 2008

In vitro inhibition of the paraoxonase from human serum with sulfonamide

  This study was conducted to determine the in vitro effects of sulfonamide on human serum paraoxonase (PON1) activity. The enzyme was purified by two-step using ammonium sulfate precipitation and sepharose-4B-L-tyrosine-1-napthylamine hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Sulfonamide was an effective inhibitor on purified human serum PON1 activity for phenylacetate and paraoxon as substrates with...

Author(s): Selma Sinan

March 2008

Molecular cloning and functional characterisation of the human fertilin b(FTN-b) and SPAM1 promoters

  Among the molecules that play an essential role in the early steps of the process of fertilisation, and in the interaction of the sperm with the egg, are the sperm adhesion molecule 1 (SPAM1) and fertilin b(FTN-b). This interaction, mediated by various molecules on the gametes, starts with sperm-egg adhesion and ultimately results in the fusion of the membranes. The human...

Author(s): Banu Az-Zubair M.K.

March 2008

Limited variation of the 5’cis-control region of the transmission blocking vaccine candidate Pfs25 amid great genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum in Cameroon

  Genetic recombination during sexual reproduction within Plasmodium sp.contributes to parasite diversity and altered gene expression of certain surface markers. The pfs25 gene involved in the upset of gametocytogenesis is a candidate antigen in transmission blocking vaccine. This study investigated the polymorphism of Pfs25 within its 5’cis-control region in field isolates from...

Author(s): Wilfred Fon Mbacham, Patrice Nsangou Mimche, Palmer Masumbe Netongo, Evehe Bebandoue Marie-Solange, Akindeh Nji, Immaculate Amunom, Johanna Daily, Valerie Makoge, Kayla Laserson, Songmbe Michael Yong, Nicoline Lomah, Peter Enyong, Vincent P. Titanji and Dyann F. Wirth

March 2008

Studies on Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of embryogenic suspension cultures of sweet potato

In this study, genetic transformation of embryogenic suspension cultures of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) cultivar Xu55-2 was conducted utilizing theAgrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 that contains the binary vector pBIN19/SBD2 with SBD2 (starch binding domain 2) gene and neomycin phosphotransferase (NPT II) gene. The presence of the SBD2 gene in the genomic DNA of transgenic plants was verified by PCR...

Author(s): Yu-Jun Xing, Qin Ji, Qing Yang, Yu-Ming Luo, Qiang Li and Xin Wang

March 2007

Identification of bacterial blight resistance genes Xa4 in Pakistani rice germplasm using PCR

Bacterial blight (BB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae (Xoo) is a major biotic constraint in the irrigated rice belts. Genetic resistance is the most effective and economical control for bacterial blight. Molecular survey was conducted to identify the rice germplasm/lines for the presence of Xa4, a bacterial blight resistance gene. PCR with primers specific...

Author(s): Muhammad Arif, Muhammad Jaffar, Muhammad Babar, Munir A. Sheikh, Samina Kousar, Anjuman Arif and Yusuf Zafar

March 2007

Assessment of genetic diversity in Triticum spp. and Aegilops spp. using AFLP markers

Genetic diversity among some wild relatives of wheat was estimated using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and morphological markers. Thirty one Triticum and Aegilops genotypes including twenty-four Triticum and Aegilopsaccessions belonging to five diploid (Triticum baeoticum, Triticum monococcum,Aegilops umbellulata, Aegilops...

Author(s): M. Khalighi, A. Arzani and M. A. Poursiahbidi

March 2008

Detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in sputum samples by modified fluorescent in situ hybridization

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common and dominant infectious agent that causes chronic pneumonia in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful molecular method for the specific and rapid diagnosis of bacteria, including the detection of P. aeruginosa in sputum samples from CF patients. High background fluorescence of viscous sputum samples obtained from...

Author(s): Saeed Tajbakhsh, Michael Hogardt, Jürgen Heesemann, Cordula Grzonka and Kristin Adler

March 2008

Leaf storage conditions and genomic DNA isolation efficiency in Ocimum gratissimum L. from Kenya

Storage of plant tissues for DNA is important to avoid degradation of DNA. Preliminary studies were conducted on Ocimum gratissimum L. in order to establish the storage conditions for the collected samples before DNA extraction. Secondly, the aim was to determine the best protocol for the extraction of high quality DNA, which would later be used for molecular analysis. DNA was extracted from the samples one...

Author(s): Lexa G. Matasyoh, Francis N. Wachira, Miriam G. Kinyua, Anne W. Thairu Muigai and Titus K. Mukiama

March 2008

Influence of agronomic practices on yield and profitability in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) fibre cultivation

Field trials were conducted in 2003 and 2004 at the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Ibadan (7o 38’ N 3o 84’ E), Nigeria to determine the influence of some agronomic practices on yield and profitability in kenaf bast fibre production.  Three kenaf varieties, Cuba 108, Ifeken 400 and Ibadan local, were subjected to three agronomic practices in a split-plot experiment. The...

Author(s): Agbaje, G.O., Saka, J. O., Adegbite, A. A and Adeyeye, O .O.

March 2008

14C-Glucose uptake studies in the red rot toxin treated sugarcane callus

Fungal toxins cause serious damage to the cellular functions of host tissue. In the present report the toxin extracted from Colletotrichum falcatum Went was partially purified and treatments were given to the callus of susceptible sugarcane callus variety CoC 671. The influence on 14C-glucose uptake and its further utilization was investigated. The toxin treatment reduced the total uptake of glucose and...

Author(s): A. B. Vedamurthy, M. K. Sateesh, G. R. Naik

March 2008

Cloning of low-temperature induced gene from Morus mongolica C.K. Schn and its transformation into Petunia hybrida Vilm

Mongol mulberry is one of the wild species of genus Morus, and mainly grows in cold regions. In this study, stem cuttings of Mongol mulberry were acclimated at 0°C for 48 h after germination. RNA was extracted form the stem and was reverse-transcribed into cDNA. Mulberry low-temperature induced gene WAP25 was then cloned by means of RT-PCR technique. The cloned gene has been submitted to GenBank...

Author(s): Xiaoping Lu, Bingyao Sun, Feiying Shen, Gang Pan, Jianke Wang and Chengfu Lou

March 2008

Evaluation of the shoot regeneration response in tissue culture of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan [L.] Millsp.) varieties adapted to eastern and southern Africa

Seven varieties of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan [L.] Millsp.) of varying growth durations and adapted to a wide range of environments across eastern and southern Africa were evaluated for their shoot regeneration response in tissue culture. On a standardized shoot regeneration medium, the short duration varieties (ICPV 88091 and ICPV 86012) generally responded faster and better than the medium duration (ICEAP 00554 and...

Author(s): Santie de Villiers, Quinata Emongor, Rosemary Njeri, Eastonce Gwata, David Hoisington, Irene Njagi, Said Silim and Kiran Sharma

March 2008

Effects of Artea, a systemic fungicide, on the antioxidant system and the respiratory activity of durum wheat (Triticum durum L.).

The present work is aimed at the study of Artea (a systemic fungicide) effects on durum wheat (Triticum durum L. CV. Hard GTA). Seeds were grown in a medium containing 25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm of Artea under controlled conditions. Roots of eight day old were used to determine the enzymatic activities of catalase, ascorbate-peroxydase and guaïacol-peroxydase. Root respiratory activity was also determined...

Author(s): Hennouni N., Djebar M.R., Rouabhi R., Youbi M. and Berrebbah H.

March 2008

Antimicrobial nature and use of some medicinal plants in Nigeria

Forty eight medicinal plants in Nigeria were screened for their antimicrobial activity. Twenty three (47.91%) of the plants caused over 70% mortality of the test organism which include anopheline and culicine larva. Bacillus spp. andEscherichia coli were shown to be susceptible to the antimicrobial activity of some plants. The antimicrobial activities of plants examined in this study showed that plants...

Author(s): Ajayi A.O.

March 2008

Sorption of acid red 138 from aqueous solutions onto rice bran

The capability of rice bran for removal of Nylomine Red (Acid Red 138) an anionic monoazo direct dye, from aqueous solutions was studied. The effect of various experimental parameters such as treatment of the bran, particle size, contact time, stirring speed, temperature and pH of solutions were studied, and the optimal conditions were selected. The dye sorption onto rice bran increased in the presence of inorganic...

Author(s): S. Hashemian, S. Dadfarnia, M. R. Nateghi and F. Gafoori

March 2008

Micronucleus test in fish genome: A sensitive monitor for aquatic pollution

Author(s): Fagr Kh. Ali, A. M. El-Shehawi and M. A. Seehy

March 2008

Effect of phytoprotein treatment on Jatropha curcas for wasteland reclamation

Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae) is a perennial oil yielding plant. Jatropha is also host to a large number of pathogens such as Cercospora sp. The systemic resistance and overall performance was enhanced by seed soak treatment with leaf extract of Clerodendrum aculeatum. On treatment, the treated plants not only showed systemic resistance but also showed marked enhancement in the...

Author(s): Mousumi Debnath and H. N. Verma

March 2008

Microbiological and physicochemical analysis of different water samples used for domestic purposes in Abeokuta and Ojota, Lagos State, Nigeria

Samples of tap, well, stream, and wastewaters were collected from Abeokuta and Ojota (both in Nigeria) state and analyzed microbiologically and physico-chemically using standard methods. Total viable count was by pour plate technique while most probable number (MPN) counts were by the multiple tube fermentation technique. The pH (at 25oC) ranged from 3.10 to 8.33 for the untreated raw water samples while temperature...

Author(s): Okonko Iheanyi Omezuruike, Adejoye Oluseyi Damilola, Ogunnusi Tolulope Adeola, Fajobi, Enobong A. and Shittu Olufunke B.

March 2008

Response of microalgae from mud-flats to petroleum hydrocarbons in the presence of nitrogenous fertilizer effluents

Untreated industrial waste (effluent) from out-fall of the National fertilizer company of Nigeria (NAFCON) was found to be weakly alkaline with a pH of 7.8. Total dissolved solids and sulphate were relatively high with levels of 2052 and 1599 mg/l, respectively. Nitrogen as ammonia was high in comparison to nitrate nitrogen. Phosphate was also found to be low in concentration. Using indigenous microalgae and aeration,...

Author(s): A. Adoki

March 2008

Statistical optimization of xylanase production by Aspergillus niger AN-13 under submerged fermentation using response surface methodology

Response surface methodology (RSM) was performed to evaluate the effects of cultivation time, pH and substrate concentration on production of xylanase byAspergillus niger AN-13. Agricultural residue wheat bran was used as main substrate under submerged fermentation. Xylanase production was optimized by Box-Behnken design (BBD). Statistical analysis of results showed that, the linear and quadric terms of these...

Author(s): Yu Cao,, De-jing Meng, Jian Lu, , and Jie Long

March 2008

Phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial studies of two South African Phyllanthus species

Many Phyllanthus species are indigenous to South Africa but its chemistry or biological activity has not been reported despite it use in ethnomedicine. Leaves extracts of Phyllanthus parvulus sond var. garipensis and Phyllanthus burchelliiwere screened phytochemically for the presence of secondary metabolites and in vitro antibacterial properties. Tannin, alkaloid, saponin,...

Author(s): Mdlolo C. M., Shandu J. S. and Oyedeji O. A.

March 2008

Solid state fermentation studies of citric acid production

Treated sugarcane bagasse supplemented with sucrose medium was found 1.7 fold (citric acid based on sugar consumption) better substrate than untreated bagasse carrier. The performance of packed bed reactor at aeration rate of 0.75 l/min and apparent packing density of 35.0 g/l was superior with citric acid yield of 55.90% (w/w), overall productivity of 0.087 g/100 g DS.h and specific growth rate of 0.055 h-1. However,...

Author(s): Ashish Kumar and V. K. Jain

March 2008

Acute toxicity of diazinon to the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

Pesticides and drugs used in agriculture and veterinary medicine may end up in aquatic environments and bioaccumulate in the food chain, thus posing serious problems for fauna and human health. The lethal concentrations of 50% of sample (LC50) and 25% (LC25) were determined using semi-static method. Eighty-four adult catfish were used for the toxicity study. Seven fish per test concentration in 2 replicates were exposed...

Author(s): Olufemi Bolarinwa Adedeji, Adetola Olamide Adedeji, Olanike Kudirat Adeyemo and Samuel Adewumi Agbede

March 2008

Development of a high-throughput microsatellite typing approach for forensic and population genetic analysis of wild and domestic African Bovini.

Conservation management and forensic traceability of African buffalo and cattle rely on the timely provision of unbiased and accurate genetic information. An approach in which 17 cattle microsatellite markers are co-electrophoresed, following amplification in three core multiplex reactions was established for this purpose. Mean allelic richness per locus was 8.24 and 6.47, for buffalo and Bonsmara cattle, respectively,...

Author(s): B.J. Greyling, P. Kryger, S. du Plessis, W.F. van Hooft, P. van Helden, W.M. Getz, and A.D.S. Bastos

March 2008

In vivo activity of stem bark aqueous extract of Khaya senegalensis against Trypanosoma brucei

Aqueous extract of Khaya senegalensis A. Juss (Meliaceae) stem bark was used to treat trypanosomiasis in rats in vivo and changes in levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were studied. The treatment involved oral infusion of the crude extract at 60 mg/kg body weight (b.w) simultaneously with Trypanosoma brucei infection, and 60 and 100 mg/kg b.w infusion of...

Author(s): Ibrahim M. A., Njoku G. C. and Sallau A. B.