African Journal of
Biotechnology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12483

Table of Content: July 2005; 4(7)

July 2005

Determination of the plasmid size and location of d-endotoxin genes of Bacillus thuringiensis by pulse field gel electrophoresis

  The genes encoding the d-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis are located on plasmids ranging in size from 45 to 1000 kb.  Plasmid size and variety are diagnostic features for characterizing subspecies of this aerobic spore-forming crystalliferous entomopathogen. Two of 25 B. thuringiensis isolates obtained from Middle Tennessee were characterized into subspecies on the basis of...

Author(s): Roderick L. Rolle, Anthony O. Ejiofor, Terrance L. Johnson

July 2005

A comparative study of molecular and morphological methods of describing genetic relationships in traditional Ethiopian highland maize

  The comparison of different methods of estimating the genetic diversity could define their usefulness in plant breeding and conservation programs. In this study, a total of 15 morphological traits, eight AFLP-primer combinations and 20 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci were used (i) to study the morphological and genetic diversity among 62 selected highland maize accessions, (ii) to assess the level of...

Author(s): Yoseph Beyene, Anna-Maria Botha and Alexander A. Myburg

July 2005

Transient expression of β- glucuronidase gene in indica and japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.) callus cultures after different stages of co-bombardment

  Rapidly  growing embryogenic calli of  different ages derived from  the scutellum of mature seed  embryos of indica rice (Rasi) and mature seeds of japonica rice (Taipei 309) was biolistically transformed. Plasmid pUCGUS containing the uidAgene encoding β-glucuronidase was used to optimize transformation conditions using various combinations of helium pressure, target distance...

Author(s): M. Ramesh and Aditya K Gupta

July 2005

Genetic diversity of Mayetiola destructor and Mayetiola hordei (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) by inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs)

  Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) polymorphism was used to reveal genetic variability and phylogenetic relationships within and between three haplotypes ofMayetiola species. A set of 14 ISSR primers were screened representing di-, tri, tetra and penta-nucleotide repeats out of which 10 generated scorable bands and three were able to distinguish one of three haplotypes. The consensus tree...

Author(s): Maha MEZGHANI Khemakhem, Mohamed MARRAKCHI and Hanem MAKNI,

July 2005

Genetic variation and relationship in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from human and food samples using random amplified polymorphic DNAs

  A genetic characterization of 18 different isolates of Staphylococcus aureus using random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) was carried out. Out of one hundred primers tested, ten showed polymorphism. The amplification reactions with the 10 primers generated 88 bands, 51 of which is polymorphic with band size ranging between 200 and 3,000 bp. Variation and relatedness between different isolates...

Author(s): Olorunfemi, O.B., Onasanya, A.A. and Adetuyi, F.C.

July 2005

The effects of the interaction of various oil types and rates on the mycelial wet and dry weights of Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont.) Singer and Psathyrella atroumbonata Pegler in submerged liquid cultures

  Lentinus squarrosulus and Psathyrella atroumbonata, two edible indigenous mushroom species, were cultured in various different media supplemented with coconut, cotton, groundnut, butterfat, palm kernel and palm oil respectively, at 5 different rates. The interaction of the various oil types with different rates produced highly significant differences (p<0.01) in the mean mycelial wet and dry...

Author(s): Nwanze PI, Khan AU, Ameh JB AND Umoh VJ

July 2005

The effect of the interaction of various spawn grains with different culture medium on carpophore dry weights and stipe and pileus diameters of Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont.) Singer

  Lentinus squarrosulus, an indigenous mushroom specie commonly found growing on dead logs in the Zaria environ of Kaduna State was cultured on six different medium which were inoculated separately with three different spawn grains and amended with six different oils at five different rates. The interaction of spawn grains x culture medium had a highly significant effect on carpophore dry weight and stipe and...

Author(s): NWANZE PI, KHAN AU, AMEH JB AND UMOH VJ

July 2005

Antagonistic properties of microogranisms associated with cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) products

  The antagonistic properties of indigenous microflora from cassava starch, flour and grated cassava were investigated using the conventional streak, novel ring and well diffusion methods.  Antagonism was measured by zone of inhibition between the fungal plug and bacterial streak/ring. Bacillus species were more effective to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus, Fusarium...

Author(s): Agarry, O. O., Akinyosoye, F. A., and Adetuyi, F. C.

July 2005

Studies on lysine production by Bacillus megaterium

  A Lysine-producing strain recovered from soil was found to produce large amount of the amino acid. The bacterium identified as Bacillus megaterium SP 14 accumulated a lysine yield of 3.56 mg/ml in a broth culture in 96 h.  Fermentation experiments show that 8.0% (w/v) glucose and 4.0% (w/v) ammonium chloride used as sources of carbon and nitrogen, respectively, in a medium/fermenter volume...

Author(s): I. A. EKWEALOR and J. A. N. OBETA

July 2005

Rhodococcus opacus strain RW, a resorcinol-degrading bacterium from the gut of Macrotermes michaelseni

  The population of resorcinol degrading bacteria in the intestinal tract of fungi-cultivating termite, Macrotermes michaelseni, was estimated to be 6.8 × 102cells/ml. A gram-positive bacterium designated RW, capable of degrading resorcinol, was isolated from the highest positive dilution. Isolate RW could also degrade phenol and benzoic acid aerobically, and anaerobically using nitrate as an...

Author(s): David Kamanda NgugiY, Muniru Khamis Tsanuo and Hamadi Iddi Boga

July 2005

Identification and typing of the yeast strains isolated from bili bili, a traditional sorghum beer of Chad

  Seventy six yeast strains isolated form bili bili and others sample were identified and typed in purpose of selecting appropriate starter culture. Identification techniques included conventional phenetic method, PCR/RFLP of NTS2 rDNA region, partial sequencing of the D1/D2 region of 26S rDNA and karyotyping using contour clamped homogenous electric field (CHEF) technique. TheSaccharomyces...

Author(s): Nanadoum MAOURA, Mbailao MBAIGUINAM Huu Vang NGUYEN, Claude GAILLARDIN and Jacques POURQUIE.

July 2005

Production of ethanol from Carica papaya (pawpaw) agro waste: effect of saccharification and different treatments on ethanol yield

  A study was carried out on yeast fermentation of carica papaya (pawpaw) agricultural waste using dried active baker's yeast and brewer's yeast strain (Sacchromyces cerevisiae). The pawpaw considered as an agricultural waste was the tapped ripe pawpaw fruit harvested after the tapping of papain. Effect of different yeast strains on the percentage yield of ethanol was investigated. The effects...

Author(s): AKIN-OSANAIYE, B.C., NZELIBE, H.C. and AGBAJI,  A.S.

July 2005

Ethanol and sugar tolerance of wine yeasts isolated from fermenting cashew apple juice

  Seventeen wine yeasts isolated from fermenting cashew apple juice were screened for ethanol and sugar tolerance. Two species of Saccharomyces comprising of three strains of S. cerevisiae and one S. uvarum showed measurable growth in medium containing 9% (v/v) ethanol. They were equally sugar-tolerant having good growth in medium containing 25% (w/v) glucose. Two of the strains...

Author(s): Osho, A.

July 2005

Identification of pH tolerant Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains and their symbiotic effectiveness in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in low nutrient soil

  Eight strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum were isolated from the root nodules of soybean cultivar PK 472 collected from Adaptive Trial Centre, Bundi, India. All the isolates were authenticated through plant assay test in germination pouches. Growth of the isolated strains on different pH levels was observed and three strains namely Bj-3, Bj-5 and Bj-8 were found to be able to grow up to pH 8.5....

Author(s): M. K. Meghvansi, Kamal Prasad and S.K. Mahna

July 2005

Response of Glycine max in relation to nitrogen fixation as influenced by fungicide seed treatment

  Glycine max – Rhizobium interaction is a well known symbiotic association occurring in nature and responsible for biological nitrogen fixation. Thiram a well-known fungicide has been in practice as seed dressing in order to prevent fungal colonization. In the present study the effect of various thiram concentrations is investigated. Thiram concentration beyond 500 μg/ml was observed to be highly...

Author(s): Anupama Bikrol, Nidhi Saxena and Kiran Singh

July 2005

Seed abnormalities and associated mycoflora of rain-fed wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in South Western Nigeria

  The health of wheat seeds produced under rain-fed conditions in South Western Nigeria was investigated. There were more abnormal (1.0 – 79.7%) than normal (10.7 – 28.7%) seeds.  Forms of seed abnormality observed include wrinkled seeds (64.2 – 79.7%), entirely discoloured seeds (1.0 – 12.5%), seeds with discoloured embryo (germ) (1.2 – 1.5%) and brush (0.25 – 1.25%)...

Author(s): O. A. Enikuomehin

July 2005

Interaction between Biomphalaria pfeifferi, the snail intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, and indoplanobis exustus, a possible competitor snail

  Biological control of snail intermediate host of human schistosome parasites has been suggested. In this study, the effect of Indoplanobis exustus a planorbid snail and possible competitor snail of Biomphalaria pfeifferi on the fecundity and growth rate of the later was evaluated. The results showed a significant difference in the growth rates and fecundity of I....

Author(s): OKERE, P .U. and ODAIBO, A. B.

July 2005

Suitability of the leaf extract of Jatropha gossypifolia as an anticoagulant for biochemical and haematological analyses

  The extract of Jatropha gossypifolia leaf was obtained by crushing the leaf in a mortal and the fluid expressed out. The suitability of the leaf extract as an anticoagulant for biochemical and haematological analyses was determined. The anticoagulant effect of the extract was found to be highest at a concentration of 0.1 ml per ml of blood. Blood tubes with dried leaf extract at the stated...

Author(s): T. Oduola, O. G Avwioro,  and T. B Ayanniyi

July 2005

Antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts of Ocimum gratissimum on selected diarrhoea causing bacteria in southwestern Nigeria

  The antibacterial activity of different extracts from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Salmonella typhimurium, pathogenic bacteria that cause diarrhea. These extracts evaluated include cold water extract (CWE), hot water extract (HWE) and steam distillation extract (SDE). Only SDE has inhibitory effects on the...

Author(s): T. T. Adebolu and Salau Abiola Oladimeji

July 2005

Phytochemical constituents of some Nigerian medicinal plants

  Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phlobatannin and cardic glycoside distribution in ten medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Cleome nutidosperma, Emilia coccinea, Euphorbia heterophylla, Physalis angulata, Richardia bransitensis, Scopania dulcis, Sida acuta, Spigelia anthelmia, Stachytarpheta...

Author(s): H.O. Edeoga, D. E. Okwu and B.O Mbaebie

July 2005

Reduction of the cyanide content during fermentation of cassava roots and leaves to produce bikedi and ntoba mbodi, two food products from Congo

Cassava roots and leaves constitute energy-rich and protein-rich foods, respectively, for the populations in Central Africa, where they are consumed as staple foods. But cassava roots and leaves contain some cyanide in the form of cyanogenic glucosides, notably the linamarine, which can constitute a poison for the consumers when roots or leaves are processed improperly. Cassava roots and leaves processing in Congo, as...

Author(s): S.C. Kobawila, D. Louembe, S Keleke, J. Hounhouigan, and C. Gamba

July 2005

Effect of iron and growth inhibitors on siderophores production by Pseudomonas fluorescens

  The ability of Pseudomonas to grow and to produce siderophores is dependent on the iron content and the type of carbon sources in the medium. Under conditions of low-iron concentration the Pseudomonas isolates studied produced yellow-green fluorescent iron-binding peptide siderophores and the biosynthesis of this siderophores was affected by several different environmental parameters. Four...

Author(s): Djibaoui  Rachid and Bensoltane Ahmed

July 2005

Purification of acidic protease from the cotyledons of germinating Indian bean (Dolichos lablab L. var lignosus) seeds

  The positive correlation between the developments of acid, neutral and alkaline proteases (azocaseinolytic) with protein depletion suggest the involvement of these proteases in the degradation of proteins in germinating Indian bean.  These proteases increased in the early stages of germination and decreased later. However, the activity of acid proteases was higher throughout the germination period...

Author(s): Vadde Ramakrishna and P. Ramakrishna Rao

July 2005

Detection and distribution of sweetpotato feathery mottle virus in sweetpotato using membrane immunobinding assay

  The serological technique called membrane immunobinding assay (MIBA) was used for the detection and distribution of sweetpotato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) in clones of sweetpotato from China. The immuno-fingerprinting technique on nitrocellulose membrane is based on specific recognition between the viral antigens and a polyclonal antibody against them. The reaction on the membrane allows the observation of...

Author(s): Yao DJE and Hortense Atta DIALLO

July 2005

Optimization of thermostable alkaline protease production from species of Bacillus using rice bran

  A protease producing microorganism was isolated from soil collected from a detergent industry and identified as Bacillus species. Isolate K-30 produced thermostable alkaline protease utilizing rice bran. The optimum conditions for protease activity was 55°C at pH 9 with 4% inoculum in the medium containing 1% rice bran after 96 h of incubation.  Beef extract, tryptone and yeast extract...

Author(s): Krishna Suresh Babu Naidu, Kodidhela Lakshmi Devi

July 2005

Analysis of the protein profiles of the antibiotic-resistant Salmonella typhimurium definitive phage type (dt) 104

  The emergent Salmonella typhimurium definitive phage type (DT) 104 is of particular global concern due to its frequent isolation and multiple antibiotic resistances. There is thus a need to know the kind of proteins expressed by S.typhimurium DT104 so as to provide a basis for developing an intervention. This study examined the protein profiles of a few isolates...

Author(s): Yakubu B. Ngwai,a, Kozo Ochi, Yasuki Ogawa and Yoshikazu Adachi

July 2005

Shelf stability of agidi produced from maize (Zea mays) and the effects of sodium benzoate treatment in combination with low temperature storage

  The shelf stability of agidi produced from maize (Zea mays) during ambient temperature (30.0±1.5°C) storage and the effects of sodium benzoate treatment in combination with low temperature storage (12-14°C) was evaluated for eight weeks. Results indicates high total aerobic bacterial count (1.05x1010 cfu/g) and fungi count (4.6x109 cfu/g) at the 12th day of storage and...

Author(s): Ogiehor, I.S., Ekundayo, A.O. and Okwu, G.I.

July 2005

Extension of shelf life of garri by hygienic handling and sodium benzoate treatment

  The effect of hygienic handling and sodium benzoate treatment on the microbial, quality and shelf stability of garri was evaluated for 14 month using standard methods. Results indicated that there were less bacteria and fungi in the hygienically handled garri at the end of the storage period than for conventionally handled samples. No growth was detected in the hygienically handled and sodium benzoate (SB)...

Author(s): Ogiehor, I. S. and Ikenebomeh, M.J.

July 2005

Length-weight relationships of five fish species in Epe lagoon, Nigeria

  Length-weight relationship (LWR) of 320 fish populations covering 3 families, 4 genera and 5 species inhabiting Epe Lagoon, were studied. The fishes (Clarias gariepinus (Burch), Illisha africana Bloch), Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus(Lacepede), Chrysichthys walkeri (Gunther) and Ethmalosa fimbriata(Bowdich)) were obtained from fish landing site at Epe market from November 2001 to October...

Author(s): Fafioye, O.O., and Oluajo, O.A.

July 2005

Response surface methodological approach to optimize the nutritional parameters for enhanced production of α-amylase in solid state fermentation by Thermomyces lanuginosus

Response surface methodology was used to study the cumulative effect of the nutritional parameters and to enhance the production of extracellular α-amylase in solid-state fermentation by Thermomyces lanuginosus ATCC 58157. These nutritional parameters considered include carbon source (soluble starch), nitrogen source (peptone) and a concentrated mineral medium. For obtaining the mutual interaction between the...

Author(s): Adinarayana Kunamneni, Kuttanpillai Santhosh Kumar and Suren Singh

July 2005

Chromosome number and cytomorphological characterization of a polyploid Abrus

Chromosome counts from natural populations of Abrus pulchellus in Nigeria were carried out. Tetraploid (2n = 44) chromosome number was constant in all the samples investigated. The 44 chromosomes fall into three cytomorphological categories: eight metacentric and eight sub-metacentric pairs, and six acrocentric pairs. The chromosomes are relatively small in length ranging from 0.5 to 1.4μm. The polyploid (tetraploid)...

Author(s): Ikechukwu O. Agbagwa and Bosa E. Okoli