African Journal of
Business Management

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Bus. Manage.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1993-8233
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJBM
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 4120

Full Length Research Paper

Followers’ ability as a substitute for leadership

Wan Khairuzzaman Wan Ismail1, Ghulam Hussain2,3*, Siti Zaleha Abdul Rashid1and Noor Azmi Mohamad3
1International Business School (IBS), University Teknologi Malaysia, International Campus, Jalan Semarak 50400 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 2COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal, Pakistan. 3Faculty of Management and Human Resource Development, University Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai Johor, Malaysia.  
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 21 June 2011
  •  Published: 09 September 2011


The conviction that under certain circumstances “hierarchical leadership influence is replaced by the contingencies” is the central premise of the substitutes for leadership. In this regard, spectacular research has been taken to identify the potential substitutes for the leadership especially in European and American contexts. However, the present study for the first time in Pakistani context, has evaluated the followers’ ability as a substitute for leadership. For this purpose, a sample of 365 middle level managers from financial sector was utilized and the proposed relationships were tested through hierarchal regression. The statistical results obtained through hierarchical regression confirmed the substitution effects of followers’ ability on leadership styles and followers’ criterion variables. Based on the findings of the study, practical implications for practicing managers and academicians are discussed at the end.


Key words: Leadership, substitutes for leadership, follower’s ability, Pakistan