Nigeria remains the country with the third highest number of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals with over 600,000 HIV-infected subjects requiring antiretroviral therapy (ART). Since there is little or no data on the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the lipid profile of HIV-infected subjects in Nigeria, this study was aimed at evaluating the dyslipidaemia associated with HAART in HIV/AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) subjects. The lipid profile of the HIV-infected subjects taking HAART (n=25) was compared to that of the HIV-infected without ART (n=25) and the seronegative control (n=25). Total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was determined using standard enzymatic methods. The results showed that HAART caused dyslipidaemia in HIV-infected subjects. Total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol levels significantly increased in those receiving HAART (p<0.05) compared to those without treatment and the seronegative subjects. HDL-cholesterol levels were however, not significantly different (p>0.05) in the subjects. Triglyceride, LDL and HDL cholesterol levels were not significantly different between the sexes. It could therefore be concluded that HIV-infected subjects on HAART are predisposed to develop hypercholesterolaemia and conditions associated with it like coronary heart diseases. The lipid profile of HIV-infected subjects about to commence ART and those on HAART should be determined prior to and during treatment.
Key words: HIV/AIDS, HAART, lipid profile, dyslipidemia, Nigerian population.
HIV, Human immunodeficiency virus; ART, antiretroviral therapy; HAART, highly active antiretroviral therapy; AIDS, acquired immune deficiency syndrome; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; PI, protease inhibitors; NNRTI, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors; NRTI, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors; TG, triglycerides;SPSS, statistical package for social sciences; SEM, standard error of the mean; ANOVA,analysis of variance; VLDL, very-low-density lipoprotein.
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