African Journal of
Biochemistry Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biochem. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0778
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJBR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 408

Full Length Research Paper

Effects of 4-nonylphenol on metabolic enzymes, some ions and biochemical blood parameters of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822)

Alaa El-Din H. Sayed1*, Imam A. A.  Mekkawy1,2 and  Usama M. Mahmoud1
1Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Egypt. 2Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia.
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 26 July 2011
  •  Published: 30 September 2011


In present work, some biochemical characteristics of the catfish, Clarias gariepinus were studied under the effect of different sublethal doses of 4-nonylphenol (0, 0.05, 0.08 and 0.1 mgl-1). Liver enzymes ALT and AST increased insignificantly at P<0.05 whereas the ALP decreased insignificantly. The activities of G6PDH showed significant increase with the increased sublethel doses of 4-nonylphenol while the activities of LDH decreased insignificantly with increase of such doses. The concentrations of serum glucose and total cholesterol significantly increased after exposure to 4-nonylphenol, although Hyperglycemia is evident. The kidney function parameters such as total serum protein and uric acid increased insignificantly after exposure to 4-nonylphenol in comparison with the control fish whereas creatinine exhibited significant increase (P<0.05). Some serum ions decreased significantly (HCO3and Na+) or insignificantly (Cu+2, Cl-and Ca+2) and others increased significantly (Fe+2) or insignificantly (K+) under 4-nonylphenol stress on C. gariepinus. Increased serum anion gap was associated with increased hyperglycemia and insignificant hypocalcemia. Such increased gap referred to nonylphenol-induced metabolic acidosis. The adverse impact of the sublethal doses of 4-nonylphenol on the molecular structure of the protein was evident by electrophoresis. In conclusion, in addition to its tissue-specific estrogenic effects, 4-nonylphenol has non-estrogenic adverse effects on liver and kidney functions through activation of other metabolism-related genes distinct from estrogen-responsive genes.


Key words: Biochemistry, liver, kidney, anion gap, 4-Nonylphenol.