African Journal of
Environmental Science and Technology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Environ. Sci. Technol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0786
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJEST
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 1037

Full Length Research Paper

Characterization of healthcare waste in Tanzanian zonal referral hospitals as a key factor for energy recovery

P. R. Mwaria
  • P. R. Mwaria
  • Department of Environmental Engineering, School of Environmental Science and Technology (SEST), Ardhi University Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
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M. E. Kaseva
  • M. E. Kaseva
  • Department of Environmental Engineering, School of Environmental Science and Technology (SEST), Ardhi University Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
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S. V. Manyele
  • S. V. Manyele
  • Department of Chemical and Mining Engineering, College of Engineering and Technology, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
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  •  Received: 06 September 2020
  •  Accepted: 20 April 2021
  •  Published: 30 September 2021

Abstract

In this study, healthcare waste (HCW) generated in four referral hospitals in Tanzania namely: Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH), Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Center (KCMC), Bugando Medical Center (BMC) and Tumbi Regional Referral Hospital (TRRH) was characterized to establish its feasibility for energy recovery. The HCW collected and loaded into the incinerators was weighed and its composition determined (as highly infectious, infectious, sharps and non–infectious waste). To achieve effective energy recovery, waste segregation and color coding system were assessed. The moisture content and heating values of the waste were determined experimentally, ranging from 9.3 to 9.9 MJ/kg. Using interviews, direct observations and field measurements, the HCW generation rates, number of patients per day, number of beds and incineration rates in each health care facility were determined. Results indicated that the HCW generated were 2345, 789, 807 and 232 kg/day at MNH, KCMC, BMC and TRRH, corresponding to 1.34, 1.02, 1.1 and 0.76 kg/capital/day, respectively. The major component of the waste stream was infectious waste (which ranged from 34 to 76%). The moisture content ranged from 16 to 72% with the mean value of 43%. Further analysis on the characteristics of HCW indicated high potential for energy recovery from waste incineration.

 

Key words: Waste characterization, waste generation rate, waste segregation, moisture content, calorific value of waste, composition of healthcare waste, incineration, heat recovery.