The qualitative and quantitative analysis of pollutant loads from effluents discharged into Lake Tanganyika has been studied, with a view to evaluate remediation strategies. The discharge of effluents into Lake Tanganyika calls for concern as it poses serious threats to the biological wealth of the lake. Physico-chemical and microbiological parameters were evaluated for pollution from the effluent source to Lake Tanganyika (discharged point) using standard procedures. Results revealed significant pollution of the lake from prisons, the general hospital of Uvira and household channels. The prison of Uvira was the highest emitter of organic loads with a 42% chemical oxygen demand (COD), followed by the general hospital (30%) and finally households (28%). The absence of faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. could be explained by the high concentration of chloride (varied from 1174 to 1388 mg/L) in this wastewater. The identification of latrines near the said collector reveals that 64% of septic tanks are connected directly or indirectly to the collector and 36% of indigenous latrines. The population is called upon to carry out individual sanitation, by building septic tanks that meets established standards and local authority’s requirement to assist in establishing a waste station which can mitigate the problem.
Key words: Uvira, collector, Belgian technical cooperation, pollution, individual sanitation, self-purification.