African Journal of
Environmental Science and Technology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Environ. Sci. Technol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0786
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJEST
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 1071

Full Length Research Paper

Short-term response of flat tree oyster, Isognomon alatus to CO2 acidified seawater in laboratory and field experiments

Lailah Gifty Akita
  • Lailah Gifty Akita
  • Department of Marine and Fisheries Sciences, University of Ghana, P. O. Box LG 99, Legon-Accra, Ghana.
  • Google Scholar
Andreas Andersson
  • Andreas Andersson
  • GRD Scripps Institution of Oceanography UC San Diego 9500 Gilman La Jolla, CA 92093-0244, United States of America.
  • Google Scholar
Houssem Smeti
  • Houssem Smeti
  • Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography, Marseille, France.
  • Google Scholar
Tiago Queiroz
  • Tiago Queiroz
  • Department of Geophysics, University Agostinho Neto, Angola.
  • Google Scholar


  •  Received: 01 August 2020
  •  Accepted: 04 January 2021
  •  Published: 31 January 2021

References

Abbott RT, Morris PA (1995). A Field Guide to Shells: Atlantic and Gulf Coasts and the West Indies. Houghton Mifflin, New York.

 

Andersson AJ, Gledhill D (2013). Ocean acidification and coral reefs: effects on breakdown, dissolution, and net ecosystem calcification. Annual Review of Marine Science 5:321-348.
Crossref

 
 

Andersson AJ, Mackenzie FT, Bates NR (2008). Life on the margin: Implications of ocean acidification on Mg-calcite, high latitude and cold-water marine calcifiers. Marine Ecology Progress Series pp. 265-273.
Crossref

 
 

Baillie CJ, Grabowski JH (2019). Factors affecting recruitment, growth and survival of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica across an intertidal elevation gradient in southern New England. Marine Ecology Progress Series 609:119-132.
Crossref

 
 

Baldry K, Saderne V, McCorkle DC, Churchill JH, Agusti S, Duarte CM (2020). Anomalies in the carbonate system of Red Sea coastal habitats. Biogeosciences 17:423-439.
Crossref

 
 

Bamber RN (1987). The effects of acidic seawater on young carpet-shell clams Venerupis decussata (L.)(Mollusca: Veneracea). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 108:241-260.
Crossref

 
 

Bamber RN (1990). The effects of acidic seawater on three species of lamellibranch mollusc. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 143:181-191.
Crossref

 
 

Bates NR, Astor YM, Church MJ, Currie K, Dore JE, González-Dávila M, Lorenzoni L, Muller-Karger F, Olafsson J, Santana-Casiano JM (2014). A time-series view of changing ocean chemistry due to ocean uptake of anthropogenic CO2 and ocean acidification. Oceanography 27:126-141.
Crossref

 
 

Bates NR, Best MHP, Neely K, Garley R, Dickson AG, Johnson RJ (2012). Detecting anthropogenic carbon dioxide uptake and ocean acidification in the North Atlantic Ocean. Biogeosciences 9:2509-2522.
Crossref

 
 

Bates NR, Michaels AF, Knap AH (1996). Alkalinity changes in the Sargasso Sea: geochemical evidence of calcification?. Marine Chemistry 51:347-358.
Crossref

 
 

Berge JA, Bjerkeng B, Pettersen O, Schanning MT, Oxnevad S (2006) Effects of increased seawater concentrations of CO2 on growth of the bivalve Mytilus edulis L. . Chemosphere 62:681-687.
Crossref

 
 

Bibby R, Cleall-Harding P, Rundle SD, Widdicombe S, Spicer JI (2007). Ocean acidification induced defenses in the intertidal gastropod Littorina littorea. Biology Letters 3:699-701.
Crossref

 
 

Bibby R, Widdicombe S, Parry H, Spicer JI, Pipe R (2008). Impact of ocean acidification on the immune response of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis. Aquatic Biology 2:67-74.
Crossref

 
 

Bijma J, Portner HO, Yesson C, Rogers AD (2013). Climate change and the oceans--what does the future hold? Marine Pollution Bulletin 74:495-505.
Crossref

 
 

Bindoff NL, Cheung WWL, Kairo JG, Arístegui J, Guinder VA, Hallberg R, Hilmi N, Jiao N, Karim MS, Levin L, O'Donoghue S, Purca Cuicapusa SR, Rinkevich B, Suga T, Tagliabue A, Williamson P (2019). Changing Ocean, Ecosystems, and Dependent Communities. In: Pörtner H-O, Roberts DC, Masson-Delmotte V, Zhai P, Tignor M, Poloczanska E, Mintenbeck K, Alegría A, Nicolai M, Okem A, Petzold J, Rama B, Weyer NM (eds) IPCC Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate pp. 477-587.

 
 

Bradshaw AL, Brewer PG (1988). High precision measurements of alkalinity and total carbon dioxide in seawater by potentiometric titration-1. Presence of unknown protolyte(s)?. Marine Chemistry 23:69-86.
Crossref

 
 

Braga AC, Pereira V, Marçal R, Marques A, Guilherme S, Costa PR, Pacheco M (2020). DNA damage and oxidative stress responses of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis to paralytic shellfish toxins under warming and acidification conditions - elucidation on the organ-specificity. Aquatic Toxicology 228:105619.
Crossref

 
 

Brierley AS, Kingsford MJ (2009). Impacts of climate change review on marine organisms and ecosystems. Current Biology 19:R602-R614.
Crossref

 
 

Brown J (1988). Multivariate analyses of the role of environmental factors in seasonal and site-related growth variation in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Marine Ecological Progress Series 45:225-236.
Crossref

 
 

Brown JR (1986). The Influence of Environmental Factors upon the Growth and Survival of the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea Gigas Thunberg. In: Department of Biological Sciences. Simon Fraser University.

 
 

Byrne M (2011). Impact of ocean warming and ocean acidification on marine invertebrate life history stages: Vulnerabilities and potential for presistence in a changing ocean. In: Gibson RN, Atkinson RJA, Gordon JDM (eds) Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review pp. 1-42.
Crossref

 
 

Byrne M, Przeslawski R (2013). Multistressor impacts of warming and acidification of the ocean on marine invertebrates' life histories. Integrative and Comparative Biology 53:582-596.
Crossref

 
 

Byrne M, Soars NA, Ho MA, Wong E, McElroy D, Selvakumaraswamy P, Dworjanyn SA, Davis AR (2010). Fertilization in a suite of coastal marine invertebrates from SE Australia is robust to near-future ocean warming and acidification. Marine Biology 157:2061-2069.
Crossref

 
 

Caldeira K, Wickett ME (2003). Anthropogenic carbon and ocean pH. Nature 425(6956):365-365.
Crossref

 
 

Caldeira K, Wickett ME (2005). Ocean model predictions of chemistry changes from carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere and ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research 110(C9):C09S04-1.
Crossref

 
 

Campbell MD, Hall SG (2019). Hydrodynamic effects on oyster aquaculture systems: a review. Reviews in Aquaculture 11:896-906.
Crossref

 
 

Campoy AN, Cruz JE, Ramos JB, Viveiros F, Range P, Teodósio MA (2020). Ocean acidification impacts on zooplankton. In: Teodosio MA, Branco Barbosa AM (eds) Zooplankton Ecology. CRC Press.
Crossref

 
 

Cole JJ (2013). Chapter 6 The carbon cycle: With a brief introduction to global biogeochemistry. Fundamentals of Ecosystem Science. Academic Press, Oxford, UK, 109135.
Crossref

 
 

Comeau S, Gorsky G, Jeffree R, Teyssié JL, Gattuso JP (2009). Key Arctic pelagic mollusc (Limacina helicina) threatened by ocean acidification. Biogeosciences Discussions 6:2523-2537.
Crossref

 
 

Convey P, Peck LS (2019). Antarctic environmental change and biological responses. Science Advances Review 11:1-16.
Crossref

 
 

Costa GB, Ramlov F, Koerich G, Navarro BB, Cabral D, Rodrigues ERO, Ramos B, Fadigas SD, Rörig LR, Maraschin M, Horta PA (2019). The effects of mining tailings in the physiology of benthic algae: understanding the relationship between mud's inductive acidification and the heavy metal's toxicity. Environmental and Experimental Botany 167:103818. 
Crossref

 
 

Curry A (2020). Effects of Multiple Stressors on the Development and Performance of Decapod Crustaceans. In: School of Ocean Sciences. Bangor University, Bangor, Wales, United Kingdom. P. 202.

 
 

de Moel H, Ganssen GM, Peters FJC, Jung SJA, Brummer GJA, Kroon D, Zeebe RE (2009). Planktontic foraminiferal shell thinning in the Arabian Sea due to anthropogenic ocean acidification.?Biogeosciences Discussion 6:1811-1835.
Crossref

 
 

Dekshenieks MM, Hofmann EE, Powell EN (1993). Environmental effects on the growth and development of eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791), larvae: A modeling study. Journal of Shellfish Research 12:241-254.

 
 

Diaz R, Lardies MA, Tapia FJ, Tarifeño E, Vargas CA (2018). Transgenerational effects of pCO2-driven ocean acidification on adult mussels Mytilus chilensis modulate physiological response to multiple stressors in Larvae. Frontiers in Physiology 1349:1-12.
Crossref

 
 

Dickson AG (1981). An exact definition of total alkalinity and a procedure for the estimation of alkalinity and total inorganic carbon from titration data. . Deep-Sea Research 28:609-623.
Crossref

 
 

Dickson AG, Afghan JD, Anderson GC (2003). Reference materials for oceanic CO2 analysis: a method for the certification of total alkalinity. Marine Chemistry 80:185-197.
Crossref

 
 

Dickson AG, Goyet C (1994). Handbook of methods for the analysis of the various parameters of the carbon dioxide system in seawater. In, United States.
Crossref

 
 

Dickson AG, Millero FJ (1987). A comparison of the equilibrium constants for the dissociation of carbonic acid in seawater media. Deep Sea Research Part A 1,733-731,743.

 
 

Dickson AG, Sabine CL, Christian JR (2007). Guide to best practices for ocean CO2 measurements, Sidney, British Columbia, North Pacific Marine Science Organization.

 
 

Dissanayake A (2014). Ocean Acidification and Warming Effects on Crustacea: Possible Future Scenarios. In: Goffredo S, Dubinsky Z (eds). The Mediterranean Sea:Its history and present challenges. Springer Dordrecht, The Netherlands pp. 363-372.
Crossref

 
 

Dissanayake A, Ishimatsu A (2011). Synergistic effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on the metabolic scope and activity in a shallow-water coastal decapod (Metapenaeus joyneri; Crustacea: Penaeidae). ICES Journal of Marine Science 68:1147-1154.
Crossref

 
 

Dissard D, Nehrke G, Reichart GJ, Bijma J (2009). Impact of seawater pCO2 changes on calcification and on Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca in benthic foraminifera calcite (Ammonia tepida): results from culturing experiments. Biogeosciences Discussions 6:3771-3802.
Crossref

 
 

DOE (1994). Handbook of methods for the analysis of the various parameters of the carbon dioxide system in seawater. In: Dickson AG, Goyet C (eds). ORNL/CDIAC-74, 2nd Edition.

 
 

Doney S, Fabry V, Feely R, Kleypas J (2009). Ocean acidification: The other CO2 problem. Annual Review of Marine Science 1:169-192.
Crossref

 
 

Doney SC, Balch VJ, Fabry VJ, Freely RA (2015). Ocean acidification: A critical emerging problem of the ocean sciences. Oceanography 22:16-25.
Crossref

 
 

Doney SC, Busch DS, Cooley SR, Kroeker KJ (2020). The impacts of ocean acidification on marine ecosystems and reliant human communities. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 45.
Crossref

 
 

Dong Z-G, Chen Y-H, Ge H-X, Li X-Y, Wu H-L, Wang C-H, Hu Z, Wu Y-J, Fu G-H, Lu J-K, Che H (2018). Response of growth and development of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) to thermal discharge from a nuclear power plant. BMC Ecology 18(1):1-11.
Crossref

 
 

Dupont S, Thorndyke MC (2009). Impact of CO2-driven ocean acidification on invertebrates early life-history. Biogeosciences Discussion 6:3109-3131.
Crossref

 
 

e Ramos BJ, Muller M, Riebesell U (2010). Short-term response of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi to abrupt changes in seawater carbon dioxide concentrations. Biogeosciences 7: 4739-4763.
Crossref

 
 

Egilsdottir H, Spicer JI, Rundle SD (2009). The effect of CO2 acidified sea water and reduced salinity on aspects of the embryonic development of the amphipod Echinogammarus marinus (Leach) Marine Pollution Bulletin 58:1187-1191.
Crossref

 
 

El Haïkali B, Bensoussan N, Romano J-C, Bousquet V (2004). Estimation of photosynthesis and calcification rates of Corallina elongata Ellis and Solander, 1786, by measurements of dissolved oxygen, pH and total alkalinity. Scientia Marina 68:45-56.
Crossref

 
 

Emanuel MP, Pillay D, van der Merwe M, Branch GM (2020). Interactive effects of pH and temperature on native and alien mussels from the west coast of South Africa. African Journal of Marine Science 42(1):1-12.
Crossref

 
 

Emerson CE, Reinardy HC, Bates NR, Bodnar AG (2017). Ocean acidification impacts spine integrity but not regenerative capacity of spines and tube feet in adult sea urchins. Royal Society Open Science 4(5):170140.
Crossref

 
 

Fabricius KE, De'ath G, Noonan S, Uthicke S (2014). Ecological effects of ocean acidification and habitat complexity on reef-associated macroinvertebrate communities. Proceedings of Biological Science 281(1775):20132479.
Crossref

 
 

Fabry VJ, Seibel BA, Feely RA, Orr JC (2008). Impacts of ocean acidification on marine fauna and ecosystem processes. Ices Journal of Marine Science 65:414-432.
Crossref

 
 

Feely RA, Doney SC, Cooley SR (2009). Ocean acidification: Present conditions and future changes in a high-CO2 world. Oceanography 22(4):36-47.
Crossref

 
 

Findlay HS, Wood HL, Kendall MA, Spicer JI, Twitchett RJ, Widdicombe S (2011). Comparing the impact of high CO2 on calcium carbonate structures in different marine organisms. Marine Biology Research 7:565-575.
Crossref

 
 

Gazeau F, Quiblier C, Jansen JM, Gattuso JP, Middelburg JJ, Heip CHR (2007). Impact of elevated CO2 on shellfish calcification. Geophyical Research Letters 34(7).
Crossref

 
 

Goyet C, Snover AK (1993) High-accuracy measurements of total dissolved inorganic carbon in the ocean:comparison of alternate detection methods. . Marine Chemistry 44:235-242.
Crossref

 
 

Gran G (1952). Determination of the equivalence point in potentiometric titrations. Part II. Analyst 77:661-667.
Crossref

 
 

Green MA, Aller RC, Aller JY (1993). Carbonate dissolution and temporal abundances of foraminifera in long-Island sound sediments. Limnology and Oceanography 38:331-345.
Crossref

 
 

Gutiérrez JL, Jones CG, Strayer DL, Iribarne, O.O. I (2003). Molluscs as ecosystem engineers: the role of shell production in aquatic habitats. Oikos 101:79-90.
Crossref

 
 

Havenhand JN, Schlegel P (2009). Near-future levels of ocean acidification do not affect sperm motility and fertilization kinetics in the oyster Crassostrea gigas. Biogeosciences Discussions 6:4573-4586.
Crossref

 
 

Herler J, Dirnwöber M (2011). A simple technique for measuring buoyant weight increment of entire, transplanted coral colonies in the field. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 407:250-255.
Crossref

 
 

Hofmann GE, Barry JP, Edmunds PJ, Gates RD, Hutchins DA, Klinger T, Sewell MA (2010). The effect of ocean acidification on calcifying organisms in marine ecosystems: an organism-to-ecosystem perspective. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 41:127-147.
Crossref

 
 

Holman JD, Burnett KG, Burnett LE (2009). Effects of hypercapnic hypoxia on the clearance of Vibrio campbellii in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. . Biological Bulletin 206:188-196.
Crossref

 
 

Huang W-J, Wang Y, Cai W-J (2012). Assessment of sample storage techniques for total alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater. Limnology and Oceanography: Methods 10:711-717.
Crossref

 
 

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007). Climate change 2007: Synthesis Report. A contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to The Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In: Watson RT (ed). Cambridge Press.
Crossref

 
 

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2013). Climate Change 2013. In: Stocker TF, Qin D, Plattner G-K, M. Tignor, Allen SK, Boschung J, Nauels A, Xia Y, Bex V, Midgley PM (eds). The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY.

 
 

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2014). Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In: Pachauri RK, Meyer LA (eds). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Geneva, Switzearland. P 151.
Crossref

 
 

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2018). Global Warming of 1.5°. An IPCC Special Report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty. In: Masson-Delmotte.

 
 

V, Zhai P, Pörtner H-O, Roberts D, Skea J, Shukla PR, Pirani A, Moufouma-Okia W, Péan C, Pidcock R, Connors S, Matthews JBR, Chen Y, Zhou X, Gomis MI, Lonnoy E, Maycock T, Tignor M, Waterfield T (eds).

 
 

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2019). IPCC Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate In: Pörtner H-O, Roberts DC, Masson-Delmotte V, Zhai P, Tignor M, Poloczanska E, Mintenbeck K, Alegría A, Nicolai M, Okem A, Petzold J, Rama B, Weyer NM (eds).

 
 

Ishimatsu A, Hayashi M, Kikkawa T (2008). Fishes in high-CO2, acidified oceans. Marine Ecology Progress Series 373:295-302.
Crossref

 
 

Jaffe R, Leal I, Alvarado J, Gardinali PR, Sericano JL (1998). Baseline study on the levels of organic pollutants and heavy metals in bivalves from the Morrocoy National park, Venezuela. Marine Pollution Bulletin 36:925-929.
Crossref

 
 

Johnson KM, Sieburth JM, Williams PJL, Brändström L (1987). Coulometric total carbon dioxide analysis for marine studies: Automation and calibration. Marine Chemistry 21:117-133.
Crossref

 
 

Johnson KM, Wills KD, Butler DB, Johnson WK, Wong CS (1993). Coulometric total carbon dioxide analysis for marine studies: maximizing the performance of an automated gas extraction system and coulometric detector. Marine Chemistry 44:167-188.
Crossref

 
 

Jokiel PL, Maragos JE, Franzisket L (1978). Coral growth: buoyant weight technique. In: Stoddart DR, Johannes RE (eds). Coral reefs: research methods. UNESCO, Paris, Italy pp. 529-541.

 
 

Jones JM, Sweet J, Brzezinski MA, McNair HM, Passow U (2016). Evaluating carbonate system algorithms in a nearshore system: Does total alkalinity matter? . PLoS ONE 11(11):11.
Crossref

 
 

Kawahata H, Fujita K, Iguchi A, Inoue M, Iwasaki S, Kuroyanagi A, Maeda A, Manaka T, Moriya K, Takagi H, Toyofuku T, Yoshimura T, Suzuki A (2019). Perspective on the response of marine calcifiers to global warming and ocean acidification-Behavior of corals and foraminifera in a high CO2 world "hot house". Progress in Earth and Planetary Science 6(1):1-37.
Crossref

 
 

Keeling CD (1993). Surface Ocean CO2. In: Heimann M (ed). Global Carbon Cycle. Kluwer Publishers pp. 22-29.
Crossref

 
 

Kinnear PR, Gray CD (1999). SPSS for Windows Made Simple. Psychology Press Ltd, Hove, United Kingdom.

 
 

Kleypas JA, Feely RA, Fabry VJ, Langdon C, Sabine CL, Robbins LL (2006). Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Coral Reefs and Other Marine Calcifiers: A Guide for Future Research. In. NSF, NOAA, and the U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg P 88.

 
 

Kurihara H, Asai T, Kato S, Ishimatsu A (2009). Effects of elevated pCO2 on early development in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Aquatic Biology 4(3):225-233.
Crossref

 
 

Kurihara H, Kato S, Ishimatsu A (2007). Effects of increased seawater pCO2 on early development of the oyster Crassostrea gigas. Aquatic Biology 1(1):91-98.
Crossref

 
 

Kurihara H, Shirayama Y (2004). Effects of increased atmospheric CO2 on sea urchin early development. Marine Ecology Progress Series 274:161-169.
Crossref

 
 

La Peyre ML, Geaghan J, Decossas G, La Peyre JF (2016). Analysis of environmental factors influencing salinity patterns, oyster growth, and mortality in Lower Breton Sound Estuary, Louisiana, using 20 years of data. Journal of Coastal Research 32(3):519-530.
Crossref

 
 

Lacoue-Labarthe T, Martin S, Oberhänsli F, Teyssie JL, Markich S, Jeffree R, Bustamante P (2009). Effects of increased pCO2 and temperature on trace element (Ag, Cd and Zn) bioaccumulation in the eggs of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis Biogeosciences Discuss 6:4865-4894.
Crossref

 
 

Langdon C, Atkinson MJ (2005). Effect of elevated pCO2 on photosynthesis and calcification of corals and interactions with seasonal change in temperature/irradiance and nutrient enrichment. . JournalJournal of Geophysical Research C: Oceans 110:1-16.
Crossref

 
 

Leal A, A.V.Flores AAV, Collin R, Tremblaya R (2019). Drifting in the Caribbean: Hints from the intertidal bivalve Isognomon alatus. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 227:106333.
Crossref

 
 

Linto N, Barnes J, Ramachandran R, Divia J, Ramachandran P, Upstill-God RC (2014). Carbon dioxide and methane emissions from Mangrove-Associated Waters of the Andaman Islands, Bay of Bengal. Estuaries and Coasts 37(2):381-398.
Crossref

 
 

Liu Z, Zhang Y, Zhou Z, Zong Y, Zheng Y, Liu C, Kong N, Gao Q, Wang L, Song L (2020). Metabolomic and transcriptomic profiling reveals the alteration of energy metabolism in oyster larve during initial shell formation and under experimental ocean acidification. Scientific Reports 10(1):1-11.
Crossref

Mackenzie FT, Bricker OP, Herman SS (1970). Seminar on organism-sediment Interrelationships. In: Bermuda Biological Station Special Report.

 

Martin S, Richier S, Pedrotti ML, Dupont S, Castejon C, Gerakis Y, Kerros ME, Oberhansli F, Teyssie JL, Jeffree R, Gattuso JP (2011). Early development and molecular plasticity in the Mediterranean sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus exposed to CO2-driven acidification. Journal of Experimental Biology 214:1357-1368.
Crossref

 
 

Matoo OB, Lannig G, Bock C, Sokolovabio I (2020). Temperature but not ocean acidification affects energy metabolism and enzyme activities in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. BioRxiv.
Crossref

 
 

McClintock JB, Amsler MO, Angus RA, Challener RC, Schram JB, Amsler CD, Mah CL, Cuce J, Baker BJ (2011). The Mg-Calcite composition of Antarctic echinoderms: important implications for predicting the impacts of ocean acidification. The Journal of Geology 119:457-466.
Crossref

 
 

McNeila BI, Matear RJ (2008). Southern Ocean acidification: A tipping point at 450-ppm atmospheric CO2. PNAS 105:8860-18864.
Crossref

 
 

Mehrbach C, Culberson CH, Hawley JE, Pytkowicz RM (1973). Measurement of the apparent dissociation constants of carbonic acid in seawater at atmospheric pressure. Limnology & Oceanography 18:897-899.
Crossref

 
 

Melendez M, Salisbury J (2017). Impacts of ocean acidification in the coastal and marine environments of Caribbean small island developing states (SIDS). Caribbean Marine Climate Change Report Card: Science Review:31-39.

 
 

Meseck SL, Sennefelder G, Krisak M, Wikforsa GH (2020). Physiological feeding rates and cilia suppression in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) with increased levels of dissolved carbon dioxide. Ecological Indicators 117:1-8.
Crossref

 
 

Michaelidis B, Ouzounis C, Paleras A, Pörtner HO (2005). Effects of long-term moderate hypercapnia on acid-base balance and growth rate in marine mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis. Marine Ecological Progress Series 293:109-118.
Crossref

 
 

Mikelsen PM, Bieler R (2008). Seashells of Southern Florida. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

 
 

Miles H, Widdicombe S, John I, Spicer JI, Hall-Spencer J (2007). Effects of anthropogenic seawater acidification on acid-base balance in the sea urchin, Psammechinus miliaris. . Marine Pollution Bulletin 54(1):89-96.
Crossref

 
 

Mukherjee J, Wong KK, Chandramouli KH, Qian PY, Leung PT, Wu RS, Thiyagarajan V (2013). Proteomic response of marine invertebrate larvae to ocean acidification and hypoxia during metamorphosis and calcification. Journal of Experimental Biology 216:4580-4589.
Crossref

 
 

Nguyen HD, Byrne M (2014). Early benthic juvenile Parvulastra exigua (Asteroidea) are tolerant to extreme acidification and warming in its intertidal habitat. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 453:36-42.
Crossref

 
 

Olischläger M, Wild M (2020). How does the sextual reproductive of marine life respond to ocean acidification? Diversity 12(6):241.
Crossref

 
 

Onitsuka T, Kimura R, Ono T, Takami H, Nojiri Y (2014). Effects of ocean acidification on the early developmental stages of the horned turban, Turbo cornutus. Marine Biology 161:1127-1138.
Crossref

 
 

Orr JC, Epitalon J-M, Gattuso J-P (2015). Comparison of ten packages that compute ocean carbonate chemistry. Biogeosciences 12:1483-1510.
Crossref

 
 

Orr JC, Fabry VJ, Aumont O, Bopp L (2005). Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms. Nature pp. 681-686.
Crossref

 
 

Patrick LC (1988). Marine invertebrates and plants of the living reef. T.F. H. Publications.

 
 

Pettit LR, Hart MB, Medina-Sánchez A, Smart CW, Rodolfo-Metalpa R, Hall-Spencer JM, Prol-Ledesma RM (2013). Benthic foraminifera show some resilience to ocean acidification in the northern Gulf of California, Mexico. Marine Pollution Bulletin 73:452-462.
Crossref

 
 

Poloczanska ES, Burrows MT, Brown CJ, García Molinos J, Halpern BS, Hoegh-Guldberg O, Kappel CV, Moore PJ, Richardson AJ, Schoeman DS, Sydeman WJ (2016). Responses of marine organisms to climate change across oceans. Frontiers in Marine Science 3:1-21.

 
 

Pörtner HO (2008). Ecosystems effects of ocean acidification in times of ocean warming: a physiologist's view. Marine Ecology Progress Series 373:203-217.
Crossref

 
 

Ramajo L, Osores SJ, Lagos NA, Broitman BR, Navarro JM, Vargas CA, Manríquez PH, Lardies MA (2020). Estuarine conditions more than pH modulate the physiological flexibility of mussel Perumytilus purpuratus populations. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science.
Crossref

 
 

Reith F, Koeve W, Keller DP, Getzlaff J, Oschlies A (2019). Meeting climate targets by direct CO2 injections: what price would the ocean have to pay?. Earth System Dynamics 10:711-727.
Crossref

 
 

Ridgwell A, Schmidt DN, Turley C, Brownlee C, Maldonado MT, Tortell P, Young JR (2009). From laboratory manipulations to earth system models: predicting pelagic calcification and its consequences. Biogeosciences Discussions 6:3455-3480.
Crossref

 
 

Riebesell U, Zondervan I, Rost B, Tortell PD, Zeebe RE, Morel FMM (2000). Reduced calcification of marine plankton in response to increased atmospheric CO2. Nature 407:364-368.
Crossref

 
 

Robbins LL, Knorr PO, Hallock P (2009). Response of Halimeda to ocean acidification: field and laboratory evidence. Biogeosciences Discussions 6:4895-4918.
Crossref

 
 

Ross PM, Parker L, O'Connor WA, Bailey EA (2011). The Impact of ocean acidification on reproduction, early development and settlement of marine organisms. Water 3:1005-1030.
Crossref

 
 

Ryan EM, Ogle K, Zelikova TJ, LeCain DR, Williams DG, Morgan JA, Pendall E (2015). Antecedent moisture and temperature conditions modulate the response of ecosystem respiration to elevated CO2 and warming. Global Change Biology 21:2588-2602.
Crossref

 
 

Sabine CL, Feely RA, Gruber N, Key RM (2004). The oceanic sink for anthropogenic CO2. Science 305:367-371.
Crossref

 
 

Saed K, Ismail A, Omar H, Kusnan M (2001). Accumulation of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd) in flat-tree oysters Isognomon alatus exposed to pig farm effluent. Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry 82:45-58.
Crossref

 
 

Sbriz L, Aquino MR, de Rodriguez NMA, Fowler SW, Sericano JL (1998). Levels of chlorinated hydrocarbons and trace metals in bivalves andnearshore sediments from the Dominican Republic. Marine Pollution Bulletin 36:971-979.
Crossref

 
 

Schmittner A, Oschlies A, Matthews HD, Galbraith ED (2008). Future changes in climate, ocean circulation, ecosystems, and biogeochemical cycling simulated for a business-as-usual CO2 emission scenario until year 4000 AD. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 22(1).
Crossref

 
 

Shirayama Y, Thornton H (2005). Effect of increased atmospheric CO2 on shallow water marine benthos. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 110.
Crossref

 
 

Siung AM (1980). Studies on the biology of Isognomon alatus Gmelin (Bivalvia: Isognomonidae) with notes on its potential as a commercial species. . Bulletin of Marine Science 30(1):90-101.

 
 

Spencer DP (1989). Short-term growth measurements of corals using an accurate buoyant weighing technique. Marine Biology 101(3):389-395.
Crossref

 
 

Spicer JI, Raffo A, Widdicombe S (2007). Influence of CO2- related seawater acidification on extracellular acid-base balance in the velvet swimming crab Necora puber. Marine Biology 151(3):1117-1125.
Crossref

 
 

Stokowski M, Schneider B, Rehder G, Kuliński K (2020). The characteristics of the CO2 system of the Oder River estuary (Baltic Sea). Journal of Marine Systems.
Crossref

 
 

Suarez-Ulloa V, Rivera-Casas C, Michel M, Eirin-Lopez JM (2019). Seasonal DNA methylation variation in the flat tree oyster Isognomon alatus from a mangrove ecosystem in North Biscayne Bay, Florida. Journal of Shellfish Research 38(1):79-88.
Crossref

 
 

Tagliarolo M, Clavier J, Chauvaud L, Grall J (2013). Carbon emission associated with respiration and calcification of nine gastropod species from the intertidal rocky shore of Western Europe. Marine Biology 160(11):2891-2901.
Crossref

 
 

Talmage SC, Gobler CJ (2009). The effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentrations on the metamorphosis, size, and survival of larval hard clams (Mercenaria mercenaria), bay scallops (Argopecten irradians), and Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica). Limnology and Oceanography 54(6):2072-2080.
Crossref

 
 

Talmage SC, Gobler CJ (2010). Effects of past, present, and future ocean carbon dioxide concentrations on the growth and survival of larval shellfish. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107(40):17246-17251.
Crossref

 
 

Thomas MLH, Dangeubun JC (1994). The breeding and secondary production of the flat-tree-oyster Isognomon alatus (Gmelin 1791) in Trotts-pond, Bermuda. . Journal of Shellfish Research 13:507-551.

 
 

Twilley RR, Chen RH, Hargis T (1992). Carbon sinks in mangroves and their implications to carbon budget of tropical coastal ecosystems. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 64(1-2):265-288.
Crossref

 
 

Wang M, Jeong C-B, Lee YH, Lee J-S (2018). Effects of ocean acidification on copepods. Aquatic Toxicology 196:17-24.
Crossref

 
 

Watson SA, Peck LS, Tyler PA, Southgate PC, Tan KS, Day RW, Morley SA (2012). Marine invertebrate skeleton size varies with latitude, temperature and carbonate saturation: implications for global change and ocean acidification. Global Change Biology 18(10):3026-3038.
Crossref

 
 

Widdicombe S, Spicer JI (2008). Predicting the impact of ocean acidification on benthic biodiversity: What can animal physiology tell us?. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 366(1-2):187-197.
Crossref

 
 

Wilk J, Bieler R (2009). Ecophenotypic variation in the Flat Tree Oyster, Isognomon alatus (Bivalvia:Isognomonidae), across a tidal microhabitat gradient. Marine Biology Research 5(2):155-163.
Crossref

 
 

Yadav S (2018). Correlation analysis in biological studies. Journal of the Practice of Cardiovascular Sciences 4(2):116-121.
Crossref

 
 

Yan J, Lin Q, Poh SC, Li Y, Zhan L (2020). Underway measurement of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in estuarine waters. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 8(10):765:1-14.
Crossref

 
 

Yates KK, Dufore C, Smiley N, Jackson C, Halley RB (2007). Diurnal variation of oxygen and carbonate system parameters in Tampa Bay and Florida Bay. Marine Chemistry 104(1-2):110-124.
Crossref

 
 

Yokoyama LQ, Turra A, Suckling C, Torres G, Davies A, McCarthy I (2020). Sub-lethal predatory shell damage does not affect physiology under high CO2 in the intertidal gastropod Tritia reticulata. . Ocean and Coastal Management 68. 
Crossref

 
 

Yu PC, Matson PG, Martz TR, Hofmann GE (2011). The ocean acidification seascape and its relationship to the performance of calcifying marine invertebrates: Laboratory experiments on the development of urchin larvae framed by environmentally-relevant pCO(2)/pH. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 400:288-295.
Crossref

 
 

Zablocki J, Anderson AJ, Bates NR (2011). Diel aquatic CO2 system dynamics of a Bermudian mangrove environment. Aquatic Geochemistry 17(6):841-859.
Crossref

 
 

Zeebe RE (2012). History of seawater carbonate chemistry, atmospheric CO2, and ocean acidification. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 40:141-165.
Crossref

 
 

Zhang Y, Liu Z, Zong Y, Zheng Y, Li Y, Han Z, Wang L, Song L (2020). The increased expression of an engrailed gene to sustain shell formation in response to ocean acidification. Frontiers in Physiology 11:1569.
Crossref