African Journal of
Food Science

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Food Sci.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0794
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJFS
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 924

Full Length Research Paper

Evaluation of the nutritional and sensory quality of functional breads produced from whole wheat and soya bean flour blends

Joel Ndife*, L. O. Abdulraheem and U. M. Zakari
  Department of Food Technology, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna State, Nigeria.  
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 21 July 2011
  •  Published: 31 August 2011



The use of whole wheat and soybean flour blends in the production of functional breads was studied. The flour blends of whole wheat and soybean were composites at replacement levels of 10, 20, 30 and 40% while the whole wheat flour bread (sample A) served as control. The proximate composition of the various flour blends used for the preparation of the breads were determined using standard methods. The bread loaves were produced using the straight-dough procedure and were subsequently evaluated for their nutritional composition and sensory attributes. The physico-chemical analyses results obtained showed an increase in the range of 11.0% for moisture, 4.37% for protein, 2.40% for fat, 2.35% for crude fibre, 0.85% for ash and a decrease in carbohydrate and energy contents by 20.92 and 44.60% respectively. There was also a decrease in bread volume and dough expansion by 64.50 and 13.0% respectively, with progressive inclusion of the soybean flour. The sensory analysis showed that there was no significant difference observed between the whole wheat bread and the soy bread samples in the sensory attributes of crust colour and crumb appearance, While significant difference (p<0.05) was observed in texture, flavour and overall preference respectively. It was concluded that a substitution of 10% soy flour into wheat flour gave the bread with the best overall quality acceptability.


Key words: Whole wheat, soybeans, composite flour, functional bread, physico-chemical composition, sensory attributes.