African Journal of
Food Science

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Food Sci.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0794
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJFS
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 836

Full Length Research Paper

Evaluation of suitability of commercially available maize grains for ‘tuwo’ production in Nigeria

Mathew K. Bolade
  Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, P. M. B. 704, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria
Email: [email protected]

  • Article Number - 1159C1924740
  • Vol.4(6), pp. 371 - 381 , June 2010
  •  Accepted: 31 May 2010
  •  Published: 30 June 2010



This study evaluated the physical characteristics of grains from five different maize varieties [that is, TZL Comp.3C2, TZL Comp.4C2, DMR-ESR-W, DMR-LSR-W and a market sample (Shagari variety)]. In addition, physicochemical properties of their flours, textural and sensory characteristics of tuwo (a maize-based non-fermented food dumpling) prepared from such flours were also evaluated.  There were significant (p < 0.05) differences in the amylose content, kernel weight, length, width and depth of the maize varieties and their values ranged from 18.3 - 22.7%, 223.7 - 284.2 g/1000 kernels, 9.1 - 11.9, 8.1 - 9.5 and 3.6 - 4.8 mm respectively. The damaged starch value of flours ranged from 11.3-13.9% while the pasting temperature, peak viscosity, breakdown viscosity, final viscosity, setback-1 and setback-2 ranged from 73.8-76.3°C, 108.1-150.1 RVU, 18.4 - 36.9 RVU, 147.4 - 212.3 RVU, 39.2 - 93.7 RVU and 20.8 - 68.8 RVU respectively; with significant differences  at p<0.05. The lightness indexes (L*-values) of maize flour and tuwo ranged from 88.6 - 90.0 and 66.3 - 68.0, respectively while the colour intensity (chroma) of maize flour and tuwo also ranged from 14.7-15.3 and 8.8 - 9.4, respectively; with significant differences  at p<0.05. There were significant (p<0.05) differences in the cohesiveness indexes (13.6 - 15.4%) and softness indexes (16.5 - 17.4 mm) of the food dumpling obtained from the maize varieties. Maize tuwo prepared from DMR-LSR-W was rated highest in terms of all the sensory factors [that is, colour, texture (hand-mouldability), aroma, taste and overall acceptability. Both positive and negative correlations existed among some properties of kernel, flour and tuwo from different maize varieties.


Key words: Food dumpling, maize tuwo, commercial maize, suitability.