African Journal of
Food Science

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Food Sci.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0794
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJFS
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 924

Full Length Research Paper

Functional and sensory properties of iron fortified West African cassava fermented meals; “gari” and “fufu”

  Ikpeme-Emmanuel C. A.*, Eneji C. A. and Osuchukwu N. C.  
Department of Biochemistry, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria.
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 07 June 2011
  •  Published: 31 August 2011



The functional and sensory properties of iron fortified “gari” and “fufu”, West African cassava fermented meals were investigated. Cassava tubers (manihot esculanta) were prepared using traditional methods for “gari and fufu” production. A 2 x 4 factorial was used, two products (gari and fufu), and four conditions with 0.2 g/kg ferrous sulphate (FeS), Iron III sulphate (F3S), ferric alum (FA), and control (FC). The samples were fortified and fermented in a solid state for 24 h. “Gari and fufu” samples were analyzed for Water Absorption Capacity (WAC), Swelling Index (SI), Packed Bulk Density (PBD), Loose Bulk Density (LBD), Iron content, and sensory properties of texture, color, aroma, consistency and overall acceptability as quality indicators. Results showed differences in WAC and PBD of gari samples (P<0.05). “Fufu” samples showed differences in the functional properties, with sample F3S having thehighest values (P<0.05). Samples FA for “gari” and F3S for fufu had the highest iron content (P<0.05), with values of 12.40 ± 0.10 mg/100 g and 14.76 ± 0.15 mg/100 g,respectively, which compared favorably with the WHO adult standards for Iron. The panelists rated samples F3S and FA for “gari and fufu”, respectively higher forconsistency, aroma, and overall acceptability (P<0.05) but there was no difference in taste. Fortification with iron III sulphate could be a viable proposition to combat iron deficiency anemia, which represents a major public health concern in West Africa.


Key words: Cassava meals, fermentation, iron fortification, anemia, functional property, sensory property.