African Journal of
Food Science

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Food Sci.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0794
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJFS
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 924

Full Length Research Paper

Effect of ammonium oxalate and acetic acid at several extraction time and pH on some physicochemical properties of pectin from cocoa husks (Theobroma cacao)

Nazaruddin Ramli1* and Asmawati2
1School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. 2Department of Agricultural Product Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Syiah Kuala University, 23111, Banda Aceh, Indonesia.
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 31 October 2011
  •  Published: 15 December 2011


Pectin was extracted from cocoa husk using two solvents (ammonium oxalate and acetic acid), extraction times (60 and 120 min) and pH (1.6, 2.6, 3.6 and 4.6). The pectin characteristics were yield, moisture content, ash content, equivalent weight, methoxyl, anhydrogalacturonic acid and degree of esterification. The result showed that the yield of pectin was 10.44 to 17.30%, the moisture content was 10.46 to 12.35%, ash was 8.45 to 12.93%, equivalent weight was 510.68 to 645.19, methoxyl was 4.62 to 6.01%, anhydrogalacturonic acid of 55.04 to 63.54% and the esterification degree of 45.26 to 55.31%. Ammonium oxalate was effective at pH 4.6, while the acetic acid was effective at pH 2.6 in pectin extraction. The extraction time for 120 min gave a higher yield compared to 60 min. Ammonium oxalate at pH 4.6 for 120 min has given the highest yield of pectin. 

Key words: Acetic acid, ammonium oxalate, cocoa husk, extraction, pectin.