African Journal of
Health Sciences and Technology

FACULTY OF HEALTH SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY, COLLEGE OF MEDICINE, UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA
  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Health Sci. Technol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2805-4202
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJHST
  • Start Year: 2019
  • Published Articles: 26

Full Length Research Paper

Psychometric Testing of a Cross-Culturally Adapted Fall Efficacy Scale (FES) Scale for Igbo Stroke Survivors

Echezona Nelson Dominic EKECHUKWU1,2,3 *Ibuchukwum Bernice UDEGBUNAM,1 Ifeanyichukwu U. IGWEBUIKE,1
1Department of Medical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria 2Environmental and Occupational Health Unit, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria 3LANCET Physiotherapy, Wellness and Research Centre, Enugu, Nigeria
Email: [email protected]

  • Article Number - BC5AE0569645
  • Vol.3(2), pp. 194-201 , December 2021
  •  Received: 14 August 2021
  •  Accepted: 22 November 2021
  •  Published: 31 December 2021

References

Ahmed, H., Einas, A.., Bishti, S., 2018. Reliability, Validity and responsiveness of three scales for measuring balance in patients with chronic stroke. BMC Neurology, 141, pp: 1-8.

 

Akinpelu, A.O., Odetunde, M.O., Ofole, A.C., 2012. Cross-cultural adaptation and initial validation of the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Scale into the Yoruba language. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 35(4), pp.339-344.Crossref

 
 

Akosile, C.O., Fabunmi, A.A., Umunnah, J.O. and Okoye, C.D.A., 2011. Relationships between fall indices and physical function of stroke survivors in Nigeria. Int J Ther Rehabil. 18(9), pp. 487-92.Crossref

 
 

Anderson, K. and Olsen, T.S., C. Dehlendorff.(2009). Hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes compared. Stroke, 40, pp.2068-72.Crossref

 
 

Azad, A., Afsoon, H.M., Masoud, M.and Babak, M. 2014. Clinical assessment of fear of falling after Stroke: Validity, reliability and responsiveness of the Persian version of the Fall Efficacy Scale-International. Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 28(131), pp. 1-8.

 
 

Alexandra, P., Haifa, Z., Carole, C., Pauline, M. 2018. French Validation of the Modified Falls Efficacy Scale (M-FES Fr). Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. 78, pp. 233.239.Crossref

 
 

Andersson, A.G., , Kamwendo K.and Appelros, P.2008. Fear of falling in stroke patients: Relationship with previous falls and functional characteristics. Int J Rehabil Res.31(3), pp. 261-264.Crossref

 
 

Bhatta, rai, MD, 2005. Combination anti-hypertensives in WHO essential medicine list. 366, 633-634.Crossref

 
 

Boosman, H., Passier, P.E., Visser-Meily, J.M., Rinkel, G.J. and Post, M.W., 2010. Validation of the Stroke Specific Quality of Life scale in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 81(5), pp.485-489.Crossref

 
 

Botner, E.M., Miller, W.C. and Eng, J.J. 2005. Measurement properties of the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale among individuals with stroke. Disabil Rehabil, 27, pp. 156-163.
Crossref

 
 

Büla, C.H.J., Martin, E., Rochat, S. and Piot-Ziegler, C.H. 2008. Valida- tion of an adapted falls efficacy scale in older rehabilitation patients. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 89(2), pp. 291-6.Crossref

 
 

Chen, H.F., Wu, C.Y., Lin, K.C., Li, M.W. and Yu, H.W., 2012. Validity, reliability and responsiveness of a short version of the stroke-specific quality of life scale in patients receiving rehabilitation. Journal of rehabilitation medicine, 44(8), pp.629-636.Crossref

 
 

Dadgari, A., Hamid, T.A., Mousavi, S.A, Hakim, N., Hin, L.P. and Dadvar, L. 2015. Internal consistency of Persian version of falls ef- ficacy scale and activity-specific balance scale. International Journal of Health Studies. 1(3), pp. 29-32. [DOI:10.22100/ijhs. v1i3.73]

 
 

Daniela, F. and Martina, N. 2018. Falls Efficacy Scale-International: Exploring Psychometric properties with adult day care users. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 69, pp. 145-150.Crossref

 
 

Daniela, F. and Sonia, S.2017. Cross-cultural validation of the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) in Portuguese Community-dwelling older adults. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 68, pp. 168-173.Crossref

 
 

Da Silva, C. P., Carlegis, M., Suchma, K. & Ostwald, S. K. 2014. Falling, balance confidence, and fear of falling after chronic stroke. Phys. Occup. Therapy Geriatr. 32, pp. 353-367.Crossref

 
 

Davenport, R.J., Dennis, M.S., Wellwood, I. and Warlow, C.P. 1996. Complications after acute stroke. Stroke. 27(3), pp. 415-420.10.1161/01.STR.27.3.415Crossref

 
 

Debanos, J.A., Simoes, B.F.P.M.C., Screruim, C.F. and Valderramas, S., 2020. Construct Validity and Reliability of the Brazilian version of the Falls Efficacy Scale in patients with COPD. Pulmonology, 26(5), pp. 268-274.Crossref

 
 

Delbaere, K., Close, J.C.T., Mikolaizak, A.S.,, Sachdev, P.S., Brodaty, H. and Lord, S.2010. The Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I). A comprehensive longi- tudinal validation study. Age Ageing 39, pp. 210-216.Crossref

 
 

Delbaere, K., Crombez, G.,Vanderstraeten,G.,Willems, T.,Cambier, D. 2004.Fear-related avoidance of activities, falls and physical frailty. A prospective community-based cohort study. Age Ageing. 33(4), pp.368-373.Crossref

 
 

Devota, KC., Thapamagar, SB., Malla, S., 2006. Retrospective analysis of stroke and its risk factors at Nepal Medical College Teaching Hpspital, Nepal Med Coll.J, 8(4), 269-75

 
 

Donald, S.L., Angela, Y.M.L., Cherry, M.A., Gabuyo, C.J.T., Escuadra, P.A.L. and Annemarie, C.A. 2019. Cross-cultural adaptation and Psychometric properties of the Falls Efficacy Scale-International in Filipino Community-dwelling older adults. Disability and Rehabilitation, 42(9), pp. 1292-1298.Crossref

 
 

Ever hard, D., Gary, S., Charles, F., 2019. Ethnologue:languages of the World. Dallas, Texas: SIL International, 22.

 
 

Ekechukwu, E.N.D., Ikrechero, J.O., Ezeukwu, A.O., Egwuonwu, A.V., Umar, L. and Badaru, U.M., 2017a. Determinants of quality of life among community dwelling persons with spinal cord injury: A path analysis. Nigerian journal of clinical practice, 20(2), pp.163-169.Crossref

 
 

Eva, K., Franscisa, R., Anna, P., Reka, E. and Ester, M. 2017. Cross-cultural validation of the Falls Efficacy Scale-International to assess concerns about falls among Hungarian community-living older people. Disability and Rehabilitation, 40, pp. 3070-3075.Crossref

 
 

Eva, N., Monica, A., Karin, G. and Karl-Goran, Thoragen. 2009. Evaluating the Swedish version of the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I). Advances in physiotherapy, 11(2), pp. 81-87.Crossref

 
 

Evdokia, B., Nikolas, S., Eleri, K., Vasiliki, S., Dawna, S. and Ismene, D. 201. Cross-cultural validation of the Fall Efficacy Scale International (FES-I) in Greek community-dwelling older adults. Disability and Rehabilitation. 33(19-20), pp. 1776-1784.Crossref

 
 

Ewert & Stucki, 2007. Validity of the SS-QOL in Germany and in survivors of hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke. Neurorehabil Neural Repair, 21(2), pp. 161-168.Crossref

 
 

Fadavi-Ghaffani, M., Azad, A., Meimmandi, M., Arani-Kashani, Z. and Ghorbanpoor, H. 2019. The Psychometric properties of Falls Efficacy Scale in the Elderly Iranian Residdents of Nursing Homes, Iranian Rehabilitation Journal, 2019, 17(3), pp. 197-206.Crossref

 
 

Falcons, G. and Chong, J.Y., 2007. Gender differences in stroke among older adults. Geriatrics and Aging, 10(8), pp.497-500.

 
 

Flavia, F.O.C., Rosangela, CD., Joao, M.D.D. and Maria, J.F.F. 2010. Cross-cultural adaptation and evaluation of the Psychometric properties of the Fall Efficacy Scale-International Among Elderly Brazilians (FES-I Brazilian). Rev Bras Fisioter, Sao Carlos, 14(3), pp. 237-43.Crossref

 
 

Goh, H.T., Nadarajah, M., Hamzah, N.B., Varadan, P. and Tan, M.P. 2016. Falls and fear of falling after stroke: A case-control study. PMR. 8(12), pp. 1173-1180.Crossref

 
 

Guan, Q., Jin, L., Li ,Y., Han, H., Zheng, Y., Nie, Z. 2015. Multifactor analysis for risk factors involved in the fear of falling in patients with chronic stroke from mainland China. Top Stroke Rehabil. 22(5), pp. 368-373.10.1179/1074935714Z.0000000048 Halaweh, H., Svantesson, U.,

 

Rosberg, S. and Willen, C. 2016. Cross-cultural Adaptation, Validity, and Reliability of the Arabic version of the Fall Efficacy Scale International (FES-I). Medical principles and practice, 25, pp. 1-7.Crossref

 
 

Hamzat, T.K., Olaleye, O.A. and Akinwumi, O.B., 2014. Functional ability, community reintegration and participation restriction among community-dwelling female stroke survivors in Ibadan. Ethiopian journal of health sciences, 24(1), pp.43-48.Crossref

 
 

Hedna, V.S., Bodhit, A.N., Ansari, S., Falchook, A.D., Stead, L., Heilman, K.M. and Waters, M.F., 2013. Hemispheric differences in ischemic stroke: is left-hemisphere stroke more common?. Journal of clinical neurology (Seoul, Korea), 9(2), p.97.Crossref

 
 

Helena, K., David, S., Roman, H., Katerina, L., Petra, K., Jitka, T. and Yukari, Y. 2019. Psychometric properties of the Czech version of the Falls Efficacy Scale-International in Patients with Early-Stage Dementia. Dementia Geriatrics cognitive Disorder Extra, 9, pp. 319-329.Crossref

 
 

Hellström, K. and Lindmark, B. 1999. Fear of falling in patients with stroke: A reliability study. Clinical Rehabilitation. 13(6), pp. 509-17. [DOI:10.1191/026921599677784567.Crossref

 
 

Hyndman,D., Ashburn, A. and Stack, E. 2002. Fall events among people with stroke living in the community: circumstances of falls and characteristics of fallers.Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 83, pp. 165-170.Crossref

 
 

Johansson, B. and Ronnback, L. 2012. Mental fatigue and cognitive impairment after an almost neurological recovered stroke. ISRN Psychiatry. 686425.Crossref

 
 

Kempen, GI., Yardley, L., Van, Haastregt, J.C., Zijlstra, G.R., Beyer, N., Hauer, K, et al. 2007. The Short FES-I: A shortened version of the falls efficacy scale-international to assess fear of falling. Age and Ageing. 37(1), pp. 45-50.Crossref

 
 

Kempen, G.I.J.M., Todd, C.J., Van-Haastregt, J.C.M., Rixt-Zijlstra, G.A., Beyer, N., Freiberger, E, et al. 2007. Cross-cultural validation of the Falls Efficacy Scale- International (FES-I) in older people: Results from Germany, the Netherlands and the UK were satis- factory. Disabil Rehabil. 29(2), pp. 155-62.Crossref

 
 

Kim, E. J. et al. 2012. Fear of falling in subacute hemiplegic stroke patients: associating factors and correlations with quality of life. Ann. Rehabil. Med. 36, pp. 797-803.Crossref

 
 

Lachman, M.E., Howland, J., Tennstedt, S., Jette, A., Assmann, S. and Peterson, E.W. 1998. . Fear of falling and activity restriction: The survey of activities and fear of falling in the elderly (SAFE). J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 53(1), pp. 43-50.

 

Leung, K., Trevena, L. and Waters, D. 2012. Development of an appraisal tool to evaluate strength of an instrument or outcome measureNurse Res, 20, pp. 13-19.Crossref

 
 

Lima, R.C.M., Teixeira-Salmela, L.F., Magalhaes, L.C. and Gomes-Neto, M., 2008. Psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale: application of the Rasch model. Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy, 12(2), pp.149-156.

 
 

Lin, K.C., Fu, T., Wu, C.Y. and Hsieh, C.J., 2011. Assessing the stroke-specific quality of life for outcome measurement in stroke rehabilitation: minimal detectable change and clinically important difference. Health and quality of life outcomes, 9(1), pp.1-8.Crossref

 
 

Lin, K.C., Fu, T., Wu, C.Y., Hsieh, Y.W., Chen, C.L. and Lee, P.C., 2010. Psychometric comparisons of the stroke impact scale 3.0 and stroke-specific quality of life scale. Quality of Life Research, 19(3), pp.435-443.Crossref

 
 

Lynch, E.B., Butt, Z., Heinemann, A., Victorson, D., Nowinski, C.J., Perez, L. and Cella, D., 2008. A qualitative study of quality of life after stroke: the importance of social relationships. Journal of rehabilitation medicine, 40(7), pp.518-523.Crossref

 
 

Mackintosh, S.F., Hill, K. and Dodd, K.J., et al. 2005. Falls and injury prevention should be part of every stroke rehabilitation plan. Clin Rehabil, 19, pp. 441-451.Crossref

 
 

Marcella, M.S.K., William, W.N.I., Jacqueline, C.T.C. and Stephen, R.L. 2013. Development and Validation of a Chinese Version of the Falls Efficacy Scale International. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 56. pp. 169-174.Crossref

 
 

Marques-Vieira, C.M.A.,Sousa, L.M.M.,Carvalho,M.L., Veludo, F.2015H.M.G. JoséConstrução, adaptação transcultural e adequação de instrumentos de medidaEnformação, 5 (2015), pp. 19-24

 
 

Marques-Veira, C.M., Sousa, L.M.M. and Severino, S. 2016. Cross-cultural validation of the Falls Efficacy Scale international in elderly: Systematic literature review. Journal of clinical Gerontology &Geriatrics, 7, pp. 72-76.Crossref

 
 

Marques-Veira, C.M.A., Sousa, L.M.M., De Sousa, L.M.R. and Berenguer, C.S.M.A. 2017. Validation of the Falls Efficacy Scale-International in a Sample of Portuguese elderly. Rev Bras Enferm[Internet]. 2, pp. 47-54.Crossref

 
 

Marufat, P., Adesola, O., Nse, A., Nurain, A., 2020. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Igbo version of the Stroke-specific quality of life 2.0. Pan African Medical Journal, 37, 111 DOI: 10.11604/panjandrum.2020.37.111.19557 Project: Instrumentation: Enhancing the iavailability, utilization and psychometric properties. Crossref

 
 

Michel, P., 2003.Introduction to stroke and its management. Cerebrovasc Dis. 15(suppl 2), pp.1-10.Crossref

 
 

Mosallanezhad, Z., Salavati, M., Hellström, K., Reza, Sotoudeh., Nilsson, G., Wikmar, L. and Frändin, K.2011. Cross-cultural adaptation, reliability and validity of the Persian version of the modified falls efficacy scale. Disability and Rehabilitation. 33(25- 26), pp. 2446-53.Crossref

 
 

Naik, M., Rauniyar, RK., Sharma, UK., Dwivedi, S. karki, DB., Samuel, JR., 2006. Clinico-radiological profile of stroke in eastern Nepal: A computed tomographical study: Kathmandu university medical Journal, 4(14), 161-66.

 
 

Ng, S. S. M. 2011. Contribution of subjective balance confidence on functional mobility in subjects with chronic stroke. Disabil. Rehabil. 33, pp.2291-2298.Crossref

 
 

Nyberg, L. amd Gustafson, Y. 1995. Patient falls in stroke rehabilitation. A challenge to rehabilitation strategies. Stroke. 26(5), pp. 838-842.Crossref

 
 

Okoye, E.C., Akosile, C.O., Maruf, F.A., Onwuakagba, U.I. and Urama, S.T. 2020. Validation of Igbo version of the modified falls efficacy scale among community dwelling older adults: Validation study. Health and Quality of life Outcomes, 18, pp. 2-9.Crossref

 
 

Pandit, A., Anyal, A. Farrar, J., Basnyat, B. N., 2006. Practical Neurology, 6, 129-133.Crossref

 
 

Park, E.Y.and Choi, Y.I. 2014. Psychometric properties of the lower extremity subscale of the Fugl-Myer Assessment for community-dwelling hemiplegic stroke patients. J Phys Ther Sci, 26, pp. 1775-1777.Crossref

 
 

Park, E.Y. and Choi, Y.I. 2015. Investigation of Psychometric properties of the Falls Efficacy Scale using Rasch analysis in patients with hemiplegic Stroke. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 27, pp. 2829-2832.Crossref

 
 

Pathhak,V., Kanth, R., Pant, H., 2006. Stroke: A case series study in Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital. Nepal Med Coll.J, 8(3), 180-1.

 
 

Persson, C. U. et al. 2008. Risk of falling in a stroke unit after acute stroke: the Fall Study of Gothenburg (FallsGOT). Clin. Rehabil.32, pp. 398-409.Crossref

 
 

Persson,C.U., Hansson, P.O. and Sunnerhagen, K.S. 2011. Clinical tests performed in acute stroke identify the risk of falling during the first year: Postural stroke study in Gothenburg (POSTGOT). J Rehabil Med. 43(4), pp. 348-353.Crossref

 
 

Rubenstein, L.Z. 2006. Falls in older people: epidemiology, risk factors and strategies for prevention. Age Ageing, 35, pp. ii37-ii41.Crossref

 
 

Sacco, RL., Benjamin, EJ., Broderick, JP., 1997. Risk Factors Stroke. 28, 1507-1517.Crossref

 
 

Schmid, A. A. et al. 2015. Fear of falling in people with chronic stroke. Am. J. Occup. Ther.69, 6903350020.Crossref

 
 

Schmid, A.A., Acuff, M., Kristen, D., Gwaltney- Duiser, A., Whitaker, A. and Damush, T., et al. 2009. Post-stroke fear of falling in the hospital setting. Top Stroke Rehabil. 16(5), pp. 357-66.Crossref

 
 

Schmid, A.A., Yaggi,H.K and Burrus, N., et al. 2013. Circumstances and consequences of falls among people with chronic stroke. J Rehabil Res Dev, 50, pp. 1277-1286.Crossref

 
 

Slaytery, K.,The Igbo people - origins and history. MA degree in modern literary studies. 2010 Queens's University, Belfast.

 
 

Smailovic, D., Strokes in young adults: epidemiology and prevention. Vasc Health and Risk Manag. 2015; 11: 157-64.Crossref

 
 

Smith, W.S., Johnston, S.C., Easton, D.E., Kasper D. L., Braunwald, E., Fauci, A., Hauser, S.L., Longo, D.L. and Jameson, J.L., 2005. Cerebrovascular diseases: In: Kasper. Harrison principles of internal medicine. 16th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. P2372-2393.

 
 

Sousa, L.M.M., Marques-Vieira, C.M.A., Carvalho, M.L., Veludo, F. and José, H.M.G. 2015.

 
 

Fidelidade e validade na construção e adequação de instrumentos de medida

 
 

Enformação, 5, pp. 25-32

 
 

Teasell, R., McRae, M., Foley, N. amd Bhardwaj, A. 2002. The incidence and consequences of falls in stroke patients during inpatient rehabilitation: Factors associated with high risk. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 83(3), pp. 329-333.Crossref

 
 

Tinetti, M.E., Richman, D. and Powel, L. 1990. Fall efficacy as a measure of fear of falling. J Gerontol. 45(6), pp. 239-143.Crossref

 
 

Tinetti, M.E., De Leon, C.F., Doucette, J.T. and Baker, D.I. 1994. Fear of falling and fall-related efficacy in relationship to functioning among community-living elders. J Gerontol. 49(3), pp. 140-147.Crossref

 
 

Ulus, Y., Durmus, D., Akyol, Y., Terzi, Y., Bilgici, A. and Kuru O. 2012. Reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) in community-dwelling older persons. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 54(3), pp. 429-33.Crossref

 
 

Umar, L., Abdullahi, B.B. and Ekechukwu, E.N.D., 2019. Physiotherapy Identity: Confusion surrounding the title" Gashi" in

 
 

Northern Nigeria. Archives of Physiotherapy & Global Researches, 23(1).

 
 

Vijaya, B., Parajuli, N., Naba Raj, M., Sigdel, S., 2008. Journal of the institute of medicine, 30,(3), pp: 37-41.

 
 

Watanabe, Y. 2005. Fear of falling among stroke survivors after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Int J Rehabil Res, 28, pp. 149-152.Crossref

 
 

Weerdesteyn, V., de Niet, M. and van Duijnhoven, H.J., et al. 2008. Falls in individuals with stroke. J Rehabil Res Dev, 2008, 45, pp. 1195-1213. World Health Organization. Crossref

 
 

WHO, Global Report on Falls Prevention in Older Age [Internet]. 2007. http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/publications/other_injury/falls_prevention.pdf?ua=1. Accessed December 14, 2015.

 
 

Xie, J., Wu, E. Q., Zheng, Z., Croft, J. B., Greenlund, K. J., Mensah, G. A., and Labarthe, D. R. 2006. Impact of Stroke on Health-Related Quality of Life in the Non-institutionalized Population in the United States. Stroke. Crossref

 
 

Yardley, L., Beyer, N., Hauer, K., Kempen, G., Piot- Ziegler, C. and Todd, C. 2005.Development and initial valida- tion of the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES- I). Age Ageing. 34(6), pp. 614-9.Crossref

 
 

Yardley, L. and Smith, H. A prospective study of the relationship between feared consequences of falling and avoidance of activity in community-living older people. 2002. Gerontologist 42, 17-23.Crossref

 
 

Umar, L., Abdullahi, B.B. and Ekechukwu, E.N.D., 2019. Physiotherapy Identity: Confusion surrounding the title" Gashi" in Northern Nigeria. Archives of Physiotherapy & Global Researches, 23(1).