African Journal of
Microbiology Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Microbiol. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0808
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJMR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 5232

Full Length Research Paper

Preliminary study related to specific nutrient synergy-modulation of antimicrobial resistance of bacteria isolated from dairy products

Steve Harakeh1*, Imane Saleh2, Ahmad Hawi3, Hani Mutlak A. Hassan1, SafwanTayeb1, Maged Mahmoud1, Esam Azhar1,4, Archana Iyer5,  Taha Kumosani5, Aleksandra Niedweicki6, Matthias Rath6, Elie Barbour7, 8
1Special Infectious Agents Unit – Biosafety Level 3, King Fahd Medical Research Center,King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. 2Dubai, United Arab Emirates, P.O. Box 15495. 3Qatar Development Bank, P.O. Box 22789, Doha, Qatar. 4Medical Laboratory Technology Department, Faculty of Applied MedicalSciences, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. 5Department of Biochemistry, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. 6Dr. Rath Research Institute,1260 Memorex Drive, Santa Clara, CA 94050, United States of America. 7Department of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, American University of Beirut, P.O. Box 11-0236, Beirut, Lebanon. 8Department of Biochemistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 19 April 2013
  •  Published: 14 May 2013


Increasing resistance to currently used antimicrobials has resulted in the evaluation of other methods to rectify this growing health concern. Herein, we present an investigation to examine the modulation of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria grown in the presence of a specific nutrient synergy (SNS) known as Epican Forte (EF). We have conducted tests on thirty colonies of each of the following bacterial species: Staphylococcus aureus,SalmonellaEscherichia coliListeria monocytogenesYersinia enterocolitica andStaphylococcus saprophyticus. Bacterial cells were grown in brain heart infusion broth (BHI) in the presence and absence of EF at 37°C for 1, 2 and 3 h. The antimicrobial resistance patterns of the SNS-exposed and SNS-deprived isolates were examined and evaluated by Wilcoxon tests to assess the significance of the percentage increase in antimicrobial susceptibility. Our results indicate a significant increase in the inhibition zone diameters of most SNS-exposed bacterial colonies, demonstrating a rise in drug-susceptibility. Whilst this analysis has indeed provided significant insights, further investigations are required to identify the mechanisms involved in nutrient synergy reduction of bacterial resistance to drugs.


Key words: Antimicrobial resistance, Epican Forte, Escherichia coliListeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureusSalmonellaYersinia enterocolitica, specific nutrient synergy


SNS, Specific nutrient synergy; EGCG, epigallocatechingallate; AA,ascorbic acid; P-gp, P-glycoprotein; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; BHI, brain heart infusion; EF, Epican Forte; MH, Mueller Hinton plates; NCCLS, National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards; MRSA, methicillin-resistant S. aureus.