African Journal of
Microbiology Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Microbiol. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0808
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJMR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 5124

Full Length Research Paper

Anthraquinones and triterpenoids from Senna siamea (Fabaceae) Lam inhibit poliovirus activity

Omonike OGBOLE
  • Omonike OGBOLE
  • Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
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  • Johnson ADENIJI
  • W.H.O Polio Laboratory, Department of Virology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
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  • Edith AJAIYEOBA*
  • Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
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  • Ramsay KAMDEM
  • Department of Organic Chemistry, Higher Teachers’ Training College, University of Yaounde I, P.O. Box 47,Yaounde, Cameroon
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  • Mohammed CHOUDHARY
  • HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemistry and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
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  •  Received: 20 May 2014
  •  Accepted: 07 July 2014
  •  Published: 30 July 2014


The methanol extract of stem bark of Senna siamea (Fabaceae) was found to contain compounds with anti-poliovirus activity. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the extract resulted in the isolation and identification of six compounds; three triterpenoids- lupenone (1) lupeol (4) and betulinic acid (5); two antraquinones- chrysophanol (2) and physcion (3); and β- sitosterol glucoside (6). To evaluate the capacity of the compounds to inhibit the cytophatic effect of poliovirus in tissue culture, the reduction of viability of infected or uninfected cell cultures was measured using the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] colorimetric assay. The selective indices of compounds with antiviral activity were determined by comparing the ratio of cytotoxic concentration at 50% to inhibitory concentration at 50% (CC50/IC50). Lupeol was the most active compound with IC50 value of 0.014 µg/mL but chrysophanol with IC50 0.46 µg/mL was more selective with selective index (SI) of 32.1. The detection of pharmacologically active compounds in S. siamea extracts provides evidence that Nigerian ethno-medicines may be an important source of anti-poliovirus compounds. This study justifies ethnomedicinal uses of Senna as an anti-viral agent and also provides chemical entities that could lead to discovery and development of antiviral agents.

Key words: Antraquinones, triterpenoids, Senna siamea, MTT colorimetric assay, anti-poliovirus.