Nanoparticles (NPs) can potentially cause adverse effects on organ, tissue, cellular, subcellular, and protein levels due to their unusual physicochemical properties. Advances in nanotechnology have identified promising candidates for many biological and biomedical applications. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are being increasingly exploited for medical uses and other industrial applications. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the response of heavy elements levels to intraperitoneal administration of different GNPs into rats for period of 3 days in vivo. The experimental rats were divided into normal and 3 groups (G1A, G2A and G3A; G1: 20 nm; G2: 10 nm; G3: 50 nm; A: it means infusion of 0.05 ml of GNPs for 3 days). To investigate the role of GNP size on heavy elements [cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and cobalt (Co)] levels in blood and several tissues of rats, 50 µl daily dose of 10, 20 and 50 nm GNPs was intraperitonealy injected into rats for 3 days. Cd, Ni and Pb concentrations significantly increased in blood and all tissues of rats compared with the normal. Different changes were observed with Co concentrations in blood and several tissues of rats. Co concentrations significantly increased with 20 nm GNPs in blood and kidney tissue of rats compared with the normal while it significantly decreased in heart, lung and liver tissues of rats. 10, 20 and 50 nm GNPs may be an effective inducer of oxidative stress which was evident by the fact that they caused significant increase in Cd, Ni and Pb concentrations in blood and all tissues of rats compared with the normal. This study suggests that GNPs may interact with proteins and enzymes of the rats interfering with the antioxidant defense mechanism and leading to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which in turn may imitate an inflammatory response and heavy element levels destruction. Exposure to intraperitoneal administration of GNPs is a potential source of oxidative stress toxicity in rats.
Key words: Gold nanoparticles, size, severaltissues, blood, heavy elements, toxicity, rats.
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