Biofilm formation is a well organised, genetically-driven process, well characterized for numerous bacterial species which plays important role in urinary tract infections (UTIs). Adherence is a key event initiating each step in UTI pathogenesis. Such UTIs are difficult to treat owing to increased drug resistance within the biofilm cells. The review is mainly focused on biofilm-growing microorganisms because this form of growth poses a threat to chronically infected or immunocompromised patients and is difficult to eradicate from medical devices. Biofim formation process and mechanisms to its increased resistance to various antimicrobials is also discussed together with newer prophylactic and therapeutic approaches like catheters coated with hydrogels or antibiotics, nanoparticles, ionotrophoresis, biofilm enzyme inhibitors, liposomes, bacterial interference, bacteriophages, quorum sensing inhibitor, combining antimicrobial photodynamic therapy and antiadhesion agents. The review justifies the need for new antibiofilm drug.
Key words: Biofilm, uropathogens, catheter, urinary tract infection, catheter-associated UTI (CAUTI).
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