Although, nosocomial infections (NIs) are considered to be an important cause of mortality and prolonged stay in hospitals, there are only a few studies that are concerned with their prevention and reduction in rehabilitation units. This could be because most NI surveys have been carried out mainly in acute and long-stay in hospitals. As a result, limited information is available on prevention and reduction of NIs in rehabilitation units. The present study is a systematic review that draws attention to the significance of setting up specific means for infection control in hospital units concerned with critical cases, and stresses on the need to adapt to new infection control policies, training of healthcare professionals, educating patients regarding safety measures and fighting nosocomial infections. Furthermore, this study aims to show the obligations of following certain considerations while prescribing antimicrobial therapy so as to maximize the efficacy and reduce the adverse effects of conventional antibiotics. Systematic review survey methods were adopted throughout the study. Results of the study were debatable concerning the question of predominance of Gram positive or negative microorganisms as nosocomial etiological agents. Infection control measures such as continuous surveillance protocols, suitable prevention methods and appropriate therapeutic treatment strategies such as de-escalation and rotational antibiotic therapies might help reduce nosocomial infections. Much attention should be given in hospitals to the environmental conditions including quality of water and air. Patients with a suppressed immune system during their stay in hospitals are susceptible to levels of microorganisms that are considered safe for a healthy community. Hence, this study suggests that special safety levels should be set up regarding the levels of microorganisms in hospitals and these should be much lower than those used for a healthy community.
Key words: Nosocomial infections, rehabilitation units, antibiotics, immunocompromised patients.
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