Bacteria can exist in natural ecosystem in two forms: (1) free-floating ‘planktonic organisms’ and (2) in biofilms which is recently recognized and the predominant form of microbial growth attached to surfaces. Biofilms are clinically important in both human and veterinary medicine, having the ability to form on both medical devices and living tissue. Biofilm formation has many stage of process which is includes: microbial adhesion, production of extracellular matrix, involving proliferation, maturation and detachment of biofilm. It is associated infections disease which are persistent and respond poorly to commonly used drugs, disinfectants. Moreover, such types of infections have the potential to escape the defense mechanisms of the immune system. Formation of biofilm by pathogenic bacteria can cause severe contamination problems in medicine, water treatment and food processing which has directly affect human health and life. Less research exists about biofilms in animals however; they are believed to be involved in many diseases, like mastitis, pneumonia and others. Understanding of bacterial that cause biofilm is necessary for the development of novel, effective control and prevention strategies. Therefore, this review attempts to compile scientific information regarding the mechanisms of the formation of bacterial biofilm with regard to the clinical importance in veterinary medicine and also public health. Emphasis will be given to the areas of diagnosis, prevention and treatment.
Keywords: Antibiotic, Biofilm, infection, Matrix, Planktonic organisms.