Campylobacter species are among the most leading bacterial causes of gastroenteritis with its associated public health and economic challenges worldwide. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter species in poultry on free range and humans during the three seasons in Sokoto state and determine the resistance of the isolates to commonly used and abused antibiotics. Cloacal and faecal swabs were collected from poultry and patients from Government hospitals respectively and streaked onto a Campylobacter selective growth media. Culture and biochemical tests were performed to confirm the genus and differentiate the isolates at the species level. Disk diffusion method was performed to determine the isolates susceptibility to Nalidixic acid, Cephalothin and Metronidazole. Out of 506 and 292 samples, 152 (30%) and 160 (55%) were positive by culture which were confirmed by biochemical tests as follows; 28 (18.4%) and 38 (23.8%), were Campylobacter jejuni, 81 (53.3%) and 63 (39.4%), were C. coli and 43 (28.3%) and 59 (36.9%) were C. lari in poultry on free range and humans respectively. Out of the 312 isolates, 140 (45%) were resistant to Nalidixic acid while 100% resistances were for both Cephalothin and Metronidazole. Seasonal prevalence rates of 43 (30%), 100 (31%) and 9 (25%) out of 152 isolates were found in wet, cold dry and hot dry season respectively in poultry on free range while 82 (50%) and 78 (60%) out of 160 isolates were found in wet and cold dry season for humans. However, the association between prevalence and season was not statistically significant. This study has revealed high prevalence of Campylobacter species in Sokoto with little seasonality in occurrence but failed to validate the use of Nalidixic acid in the differentiation of Campylobacter species and Metronidazole in the management of campylobacteriosis.
Keywords: Prevalence, Antimicrobial resistance, Campylobacter, species, Poultry, Humans, Three seasons